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Stay safe in the workplace - Part 1
 
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Electric shock affects the human body in three ways. It can interfere with the function of the heart, it can damage body tissue, and it can cause involuntary muscular contractions. The bodies functions are regulated by minute electrical impulses in the nervous system.  The reason the heart muscle beats is because and electrical signal initiates the contraction. An electric shock can interfere with this signal causing fibrillation that is a disruption to the heart rhythm. The damage electrical current causes to nerves and body tissue often goes unseen, however severe electric shock leaves obvious signs in the form of burns. When an electric current passes through the body it takes the path of least resistance and has both an entry and an exit point. The bodies resistance causes heating often resulting in excessive external burns as well as internal nerve and tissue damage. Electric shock causes muscles to go into contraction Currents above 10 milliamps can lock the muscles in a contracted position making it impossible to release an electrified object. Conversely, contractions to other muscle groups may violently propel the victim away leading to trauma injuries. When the body becomes part of an electrical path, the severity of the shock depends on three elements. The path of the current, the amount of the current, and the time in contact with the current.  The most dangerous path for electricity travelling through the body is for it to pass through the heart. As little as 50 milliamps of current will trigger cardiac arrest.  The real danger of electric shock is not voltage, but amperage or the amount of current. As the amount of current rises so does the damage to the body. Symptoms include severe burns, respiratory paralysis, cardiac arrest and internal organ damage. The severity of injury is also dependent upon duration, the time the current passes through the body. For example 1/10th of an amp passing through the body for just two seconds is enough to cause death. There is no such thing as a mild electric shock. All electric shocks have the potential to kill. Source: www.comcare.gov.au
Views: 26881 A-Grade Test and Tag
Don't Mix Electricity And Water!
 
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Why do people say you shouldn't mix electricity with water? What happens if you do? Let’s find out :) Neon Sign: http://amzn.to/2nhSqSJ High-Voltage Generator: http://amzn.to/2mC9DZY 18 Gauge Wire: http://amzn.to/2n2u3Xy Plasma Ball: http://amzn.to/2n2KYJt Martini Glasses: http://amzn.to/2nzjiQf Endcard Links: Cozmo the Robot: https://goo.gl/oW3Y8D Metal Foundary Update: https://goo.gl/HMvlbo Start a Fire with a Pencil: https://goo.gl/2spVqX Vacuum Forming Play Buttons: https://goo.gl/rVUT3R Business Inquiries: For business and sponsorship inquiries please contact us directly: https://www.youtube.com/thekingofrandom/about See What Else I’m Up To: Instagram: https://goo.gl/C0Q1YU Facebook: http://bit.ly/FBTheKingOfRandom Pinterest: http://bit.ly/pingrant Song: Rob Gasser - Ricochet [NCS Release] Music provided by NoCopyrightSounds. Video: https://youtu.be/T4Gq9pkToS8 Download: http://http://ncs.io/Ricochet WARNING: This video is only for entertainment purposes. If you rely on the information portrayed in this video, you assume the responsibility for the results. Have fun, but always think ahead, and remember that every project you try is at YOUR OWN RISK.
Views: 9565459 The King of Random
How Fast is an Electron and Electricity
 
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How fast is an electron in a wire and how fast is electricity? An electron moves surprisingly slow, slower than a snail, while electricity moves at near the speed of light. Electrons move at what's called the drift velocity. This video illustrates all this in an entertaining and informative way. Enjoy! This video has correct English captions. Click on the CC button at the bottom of the video to see them. For "How Radiation Works - Americium 241, Alpha Particles and Gamma Rays", see: http://youtu.be/aJkx6hAD-4E For "How to make solar cells (DIY/homemade solar cell)", see: http://youtu.be/g5Edw99PgzQ For "Fresnel lens - what is it, testing focal length, solar heat generated", see: http://youtu.be/11n0ZaZMj3A To follow me on Twitter: https://twitter.com/#!/RimStarz http://rimstar.org 3D modelling and animation done using Blender 2.63. Original Earth image from NASA/courtesy of nasaimages.org.
Views: 251879 RimstarOrg
How Does Electricity Reach Our Homes? | Animated Fun Facts of Science for Kids | Electricity
 
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Hello kids, ever wondered how electricity travels through those thin wires and reach our houses? We'll help you understand! Like us on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/cinecurry Follow us on Twitter https://twitter.com/cinecurrytweets
Views: 73494 Cine Kids
Electric Potential: Visualizing Voltage with 3D animations
 
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Shows how voltage can be visualized as electric potential energy. Includes topics such as why the voltage is the same everywhere inside a metal conductor.
Why Can ELECTRICITY Travel Through CONDUCTIVE WIRES?
 
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A flow of electrons powers all our modern devices and appliances, jumping to us through conductive wires. It's all thanks to the unique properties of conductors! Support Sci-Wise on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/sciwise References (APA): Benjamin Franklin and the Kite Experiment. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.fi.edu/benjamin-franklin/kite-key-experiment Copper: Properties and Applications. (2018). Copper Development Association. Retrieved from http://copperalliance.org.uk/education-and-careers/education-resources/copper-properties-and-applications Dickerson, K. (2014). Wireless Electricity? How the Tesla Coil Works. Livescience. Retrieved from https://www.livescience.com/46745-how-tesla-coil-works.html Electricity. (2017). Funk & Wagnalls New World Encyclopedia, 1p. 1. Gibney, E. (2018). Surprise graphene discovery could unlock secrets of superconductivity. Nature Journal of Science. Retrieved from https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-02773-w Gudimetla, V. R. (2013). Charges and currents. Salem Press Encyclopedia Of Science. Nave, C. (n.d.). The Doping of Semiconductors. Retrieved from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Solids/dope.html Rogers, C. W. (2013). Conductors. Salem Press Encyclopedia Of Science. Shish, A. (2015). Is Water Really A Good Conductor Of Electricity? Retrieved from https://www.scienceabc.com/pure-sciences/do-you-think-that-water-conducts-electricity-if-you-do-then-youre-wrong.html Music: 'Perspectives' -Kevin Macleod
Views: 137 Sci-Wise
Blue Sky Science: How does electricity move through wires?
 
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Blue Sky Science is a collaboration of the Wisconsin State Journal and the Morgridge Institute for Research. The questions are posed by visitors to Saturday Science events at the Discovery Building, a monthly series that features interactive exploration stations centered around a particular topic. The Blue Sky Science team then sets out to find an expert to answer the questions. To view other videos in the series, see http://go.madison.com/bluesky. For more on the Morgridge Institute, see http://morgridge.org/.
Views: 1365 madison.com
How tesla electricity can create wireless power | The Economist
 
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Nikola Tesla built a tower to broadcast electric power. It failed. Soon, sending power through the air might be the norm Subscribe NOW to The Economist: http://econ.st/1Fsu2Vj The inventor, Nikola Tesla, dreamt of wireless power. Among his work in the realm of electricity he built a coil, later named the Tesla coil, which could illuminate lamps from across a room and throw the occasional bolt of lightning at the nearest conductor. Tesla coils remain popular today, though often for their ability to put on a fantastic lightning show. Nikola Tesla believed in wireless power with such an enthusiasm that with the financing of JP Morgan, he constructed a giant apparatus, the Wardenclyffe Tower, at his lab in Shoreham Long Island in 1901. This was before the world was wired. The idea? To send wireless power around the globe. Here's how it works. Run an electric current through a coil of copper wire and the coil will produce a short-range magnetic field. Place a second coil within this field and an electric current will flow through it. The magnetic field has transferred electrical power from one coil to the other. This principle is called induction, and it has been understood for more than a century. Induction is what charges a wireless electric toothbrush, for example, and it works well over extremely short distances. Pull the coils apart and the power transfer ceases. It turns out that the trick to longer distance power transfer is the same principle an opera singer uses to shatter a wine glass from across the room; it's called resonance. For the opera singer, when the frequency of the sound wave matches the unique resonant frequency of a glass, the acoustic energy is converted to kinetic energy at the highest possible efficiency. The energy then builds inside the glass until it shatters. The coils that Witricity uses to transfer power wirelessly are magnetic resonators. First, a rapidly oscillating electric current is applied to a coil at its specific resonant frequency. This creates a magnetic field in the region around the coil. Tune a second coil to the same resonant frequency as the source and it will couple, resonating anywhere within that region and converting the oscillating magnetic field into an electrical current within the second coil. This response is called highly coupled magnetic resonance, and it hasn't been done before. By attaching the second coil to a device such as the battery of an electric car, or a mobile phone, this current can be made to do useful work. The source can be either centimetres or meters away from the device being powered and can deliver power through walls or around metal obstacles. The power can even be distributed across multiple devices at once. So by a simple trick of physics, power is transferred wirelessly. Nikola Tesla would be proud. Witricity is developing a system, not a specific product, and as a result they have many different platforms on display at once. In Witricity’s demonstration rooms a flat-screen television is powered using a resonator hidden in its base. Laptops, with their batteries removed and replaced by resonators, flicker on, and flash lights glow when placed next to a source concealed behind a bulletin board. The system can even be extended beyond the range of a single source using passive resonators. By this method, many cabinet lights are lit well beyond the expected range of the single source below. The applications of wireless power in a wired world are endless and rethinking infrastructure may be decades away. A simple first step could be removing costly batteries from things as mundane as computer accessories and, instead, placing a small wireless resonator in the computer itself, tackling waste by centimetres at first. Wireless power has in fact been available for decades, just waiting for a clever user to snatch it out of the air. It exists in radio and television signals and is available 24 hours a day. Intel labs in Seattle, Washington, are pointing their devices at television antennas and powering small but useful gadgets solely off of the energy that carries TV programs. Josh Smith says wireless ambient radio power harvesting might yield a milliwatt or so. To a device, that's not very much. It would require 20 milliwatts to keep a mobile phone in standby mode, but it might be enough to perform some useful low-power functions. Nikola Tesla's tower was torn down in 1916. Mr Morgan, his financier, was uninterested in broadcasting electricity that people could so easily harvest for free. Instead we strung wires and built meters. Tesla knew that wireless power transfer was possible but he never saw his dream realized - it seems that soon enough we will. Get more The Economist Follow us: https://twitter.com/TheEconomist Like us: https://www.facebook.com/TheEconomist View photos: https://instagram.com/theeconomist/
Views: 113567 The Economist
What Really Happens To Your Body When You're Electrocuted?
 
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Over 100 people in the United States die each year from electrocution. What happens when electric charges surge through your body? Watch More: What Really Happens To Your Body When You Drown? ►►►► https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CMxHQ5B7dZ8 Support Life Noggin on Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/LifeNogginStudios?ty=h Follow Us! https://twitter.com/LifeNoggin https://facebook.com/LifeNoggin Click here to see more videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/lifenoggin Life Noggin is a weekly animated educational series. Whether it's science, pop culture, history or art, we explore it all and have a ton of fun doing it. Life Noggin Team: Director/Voice: http://lifenogg.in/patgraziosi Executive Producer: http://lifenogg.in/IanDokie Director of Marketing: http://lifenogg.in/JaredOban Animation by Steven Lawson Head Writer: http://lifenogg.in/KayleeYuhas Sources: https://www.osha.gov/oshstats/commonstats.html http://www.esfi.org/resource/holiday-data-and-statistics-359 https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/electrocute http://www.si-units-explained.info/ElectricCurrent/#.WMQNIjsrKUk https://www.physics.ohio-state.edu/~p616/safety/fatal_current.html http://www.realclearscience.com/blog/2015/02/what_electricity_does_to_your_body.html https://www.osha.gov/dte/grant_materials/fy09/sh-18794-09/electrical_safety_manual.pdf http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/17291/1/What-Happens-to-Your-Body-When-You-Get-Electrocuted.html http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2000/JackHsu.shtml http://www.resuscitationcentral.com/defibrillation/history-science/ http://www.zoll.com/resources/sudden-cardiac-arrest/ http://www.sca-aware.org/sudden-cardiac-arrest-faqs#faq1 https://www.osha.gov/dte/outreach/construction/focus_four/electrocution/electr_ig.pdf http://engineering.mit.edu/ask/how-do-birds-sit-high-voltage-power-lines-without-getting-electrocuted Written by Michael Sago
Views: 1292017 Life Noggin
GCSE Physics Revision Current in Parallel Circuits
 
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In this video, we explore how we can measure current in parallel circuits. We look at how current changes in parallel circuits and compare this to series circuits, which we explored in the last video.
Views: 186547 Freesciencelessons
How electric current flow works. ✔
 
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More details visit: http://www.techtrixinfo.com/ Plz Join Our Face Book Page. http://www.facebook.com/pages/TechTrixInfo/271447906234307 Related topics: Technical explained working of explanation repair maintenance automobile engineering mechanical details on cars vehicles technology technical the best worlds best perfect well very good explanation gears how does it work animations of design invention discovery works what is where service practical machines real dismantling assembling production creation torque fixing servicing installation installed handling teaching tutorial hands on training operation techtrixinfo greasing maintenance scheduled designing process removing welding fabrication fabricating recommended recommented warranty weight procedure standard vibration load efficiency efficient productivity consumption fuel network wear and tear crack stroke hydraulics flow diagram circuit.
Views: 253058 TechTrixInfo
What is Electricity
 
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Hi, I'm Emerald Robinson. In this "What Is" video we're going to take a closer look at electricity. Electricity is a natural force that we've harnessed for our energy needs. To understand electricity, we need to know a little about atoms, the tiny particles that make up our universe. Three smaller particles make up atoms: neutrons, electrons and protons. Electrons have a negative charge, protons have a positive charge, and neutrons are neutral. The center of the atom includes neutrons and protons, while the electrons orbit the center like the earth orbits the sun. Stable atoms have an equal number of protons and electrons, and have no charge. If a material holds on to its electrons tightly, it is known as an insulator. If its electrons are more loosely bound, it's called a conductor. When a large number of free electrons "pile up" at one end of a conductor, particles that have the same charge repel each other, while particles that have opposite charges attract. These negative electrons push each other apart, jumping from atom to atom through the conductor...  creating electricity. There are two forms of electricity -- current and static. Current electricity travels. It is composed of flowing electrons passing from one atom to another through a conductive material. It's this form of electricity that powers our homes. Static electricity is a charge at rest on an object. Sometimes your body picks up extra electrons through friction and becomes negatively charged. When you touch a conductor, like a metal door knob, you experience a small shock as this static charge jumps from your body to the door knob. Electricity is a secondary energy source, meaning we have to convert energy from another source into electric power. Sources of electricity include burning natural gas and coal, nuclear power, and natural sources of power, such as wind, water, and solar energy. And that's the shocking truth about electricity.
Views: 25121 red Orbit
The journey of electricity
 
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Ever wondered how electricity gets into your home so you can play the computer or make some toast? Join Mike Sparks on the electrical journey!
Views: 16010 EnergexLtd
Electric fence experiment ends as expected (original) HD
 
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We made a T-Shirt and other merchandise for the vid - Electric Fence Experiment! You can check it out at http://www.cafepress.com/electricfenceexperiment and get yourself a shirt! :D Joel is the guy on the end! Joel has no insulator :P FOR YOUR T-SHIRT/MERCHANDISE: http://www.cafepress.com/electricfenceexperiment A chain of friends touch an electric fence and fall to the ground! Scientific explanation for those interested: For the benefit of the wider science community, I thought I would explain the basic principles behind this video. The electric fence used was a pulse electric fence. It shoots an electric pulse every few seconds. Note the first in line is holding the electric fence for the entire duration of the film. He is standing on plastic which is an insulator, therefore the electric current couldn't travel through the plastic into the ground so it just keeps going down the wire and not into the human chain. However, when the last in line takes of his shoes, it means the electricity can run right through the chain through his feet and into the ground. I have heard from other sources that the closer you are to the end of the line the more resistance you cause and therefore get the greatest shock. Poor guy! :) Hope that helps!
Views: 1184767 Angus Fowles
What does the Neutral Wire Do?
 
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Here I talk about the Neutral wire in residential electric. I am giving you my version of what the neutral wire does in your main electrical panel in your house going back to the transformer. Be sure to Subscribe to my YouTube Channel to get the latest videos.
Views: 553158 Bill Newberry Second
Wood burning with 2000 volts of electricity! (Lichtenberg Figures)
 
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Making lightning tree figures (aka Lichtenberg Figures) using the transformer out of a microwave oven that produces about 2000 volts run on 120 VAC. A solution of sodium bicarbonate is painted on the wood to increase its conductivity, then the transformer is applied. The circuit creates an unpredictable, treelike burn pattern. This is extremely dangerous. It can kill you.
Views: 1167501 Brad Russell
Electrical conductivity with salt water
 
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This experiment is a demonstration, it serves to understand how the salt dissolved in water facilitates an optimum condition for the passage of the current between the two electrodes. The working voltage for this experiment must be 230 volts DC or AC. MATERIALS: A light bulb 500W 230V or 230V 100W 5 bulbs in parallel between them ..Two iron nails or other conductive metal. glass tray.Water and salt.Two electric wires.https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCrgd8qJ7CE97PSaPJySR6wA
Woodworking With Electricity #1
 
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http://www.ElectrifiedArts.com -----DO NOT TRY THIS AT HOME----- - If you have any suggestions on what you would like me to do next, message me or post a comment - Done with a Microwave Oven Transformer (MOT) Hope you enjoyed!
Views: 113506 Electrified Arts
How Electricity Flows from Power Stations to Us and How does a Transformer work ?
 
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The spinning turbines make the electricity, which flows into power lines and to our houses. Electricity moves through the wires very fast. In just one second, electricity can travel around the world seven times. From the power station where the electricity is made the electricity flows to large transmission lines held up by huge towers. The transmission lines carry large amounts of electricity to substations in cities and towns. Distribution lines carry small amounts of electricity from the substations to houses and businesses.Electricity travels in closed circuits (from the word "circle"). It must have a complete path from the power station through the wires and back. If the circuit is open, the electricity can't flow but when it is closed it can. If we turn on a light switch we close the circuit and the electricity flows through the light and back into the wire. When we turn the switch off, we open the circuit. No electricity flows to the light. Electromagnetism How Much Electricity Do We Use When we turn a light switch on, electricity flows through a tiny wire in the bulb. The wire gets very hot. It makes the gas in the bulb glow. When the bulb burns out, the tiny wire has broken. The path through the bulb is gone. When we turn on the TV, electricity flows through wires inside the set, making pictures and sound. We use electricity every day in many, many ways. Probably more often than most people realize. Every year we are using more and more electricity because we have more gadgets and appliances that require it and more and more people to use it.
Views: 4746 Mask
how electricity flows through a wire
 
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This video explains Walter Russell's openion on how electricity flows through a wire. April 10, 2011 12:50 PM
Views: 10076 delphinny
Explaining an Electrical Circuit
 
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A simple explanation on how an electrical circuit operates.
Views: 876036 Region 10 ESC
What happens When Electricity Passes through Mercury
 
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Mercury is a liquid metal in room temperature that conduct electricity hence it has applications in electronics
Views: 5287 Techs Science
Sound to Electricity:  How do Microphones and Speakers Work?
 
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Imagine turning turning sound into usable electricity! Wouldn't that be amazing? Well, it already happens everyday, watch this video to find out how! Previous Video: http://youtu.be/vqhAPEPByus Google+: https://plus.google.com/b/104548625245914242393/104548625245914242393 Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Cramboom/626670507378336 Script: Youtube, it's Cram. Sound. It is amazing, allowed us to perceive the world through vibrations in their air. And electricity, flowing electrons that power our modern world. These two seem like they couldn't be more different, but in fact they are different forms of the same thing. They are both forms of energy, and can be converted to one another. How? To figure this out, lets use the microphone as a starting point. It takes sound in from the top part, which has several holes in it, processes it somehow, and then sends it off as electricity through a wire.It seems simple enough, except for the processing part. Microphones are a kind of transducer, something that can convert one form of energy to another. In this case, it is sound to electricity. There are many kinds of microphones, but one thing they all have in common is called the diaphragm, a thin piece made of a material, commonly plastic, aluminum or paper. This acts in a similar fashion to our eardrums, it vibrates because of sound waves. Ok, but our eardrums don't convert sound into electricity. We're all familiar with a simple electrical generator, right? Basically, there is a coil, typically a conductor like copper, and inside the coil is a magnet. As the magnet rotates/ moves, an electrical current passes through the coil. This is because of electromagnetism, and electricity can be used to make a magnet, the opposite is also true. So when this material vibrates, it is attached to the magnet, therefore moving the magnet, thus creating an electrical signal. This signal is passed through a wire to a speaker, or anything that plays music. This speaker is also a transducer. It does the opposite though. Remember how electricity can be used to create a magnet? Well, that's what's happening. The electricity flows through the coiled conductor inside the speaker, in turn moving the magnet. This magnet usually moves a cone, instead of a thin material, which produces the sound. This is why larger speakers typically have more bass, since the cone is bigger, larger wavelengths can travel further, thus having more "oomph" and cleaner sound. Wait, so if sound can make energy, why don't we use it as a renewable source of energy? That's because the amount of energy is extremely low, too low to even bother with. Or it would be the end of the energy crisis we face today. I hope you enjoyed this video as much as I appreciated you watching. Subscribe to stay up to date on all my latest science videos, and until next time, Cram Out. Credits: ♫ 'Daggers' by Metiri Metiri Facebook: http://facebook.com/metiridubstep Metiri YouTube: http://youtube.com/metiridubstep Proof of Permission: http://i40.tinypic.com/2l8uclx.png
Views: 48994 CramBoom
Energy Experiment: Electricity Flow through the body
 
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Ross Ferguson's Energy Experiment: Electricity flow through the body
Views: 6485 Allan Ferguson
Electricity from road with kinetic energy. video 2.flv
 
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The Ramp operates by virtue of a number of articulated plates placed in the road. When vehicles weight is exerted on the plates they are moved up and down and by means of a specially designed mechanism, a generator is driven, which is capable of producing AC or DC current. In either event, the generator's output will vary according to the frequency and weight of traffic, but in general terms will be capable of producing between 5 and 10kW. The ramp is unobtrusive, silent in operation, causes no discomfort to the vehicles occupants and is entirely safe in operation. The Ramp requires the minimum of maintenance and may be used for generating electricity to power street lighting, traffic lights or road signs, with the surplus being fed into the national grid. It can also store electricity within a storage battery for future use.
Views: 228896 garud choudhary
Electrons inside a copper wire
 
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I was asked to try and explain electron flow inside a wire. This short animation is my response. Please give us your comments
Views: 28068 Mallinson Electrical
How the cardiac cycle is produced by electrical impulses in the heart
 
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This was part of a series of 3 short animations: The cardiac cycle http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5tUWOF6wEnk Electrocardiograph http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ygsvAZVA6sc How the cardiac cycle is produced by electrical impulses in the heart http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fZT9vlbL2uA And some additional medical illustrations here: http://pinterest.com/luxson/luxson-medicaltm/
Views: 226071 LUXSONTube
How Does The Electricity Travel?
 
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This is because electric energy composed of and 3 apr 2018 what electricity? Electricity a type that can build up in one place or flow from to another. Yet, while the science behind flow of electricity is very complex, basics electrical flow, or current, are easy to understand if you learn some key terms and functions a tiny particles called electrons which can travel through wires. How does electricity travel? Physics stack exchange. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte, or both and electrons such as ionised gas (plasma). The protons and neutrons of the copper atoms do not move. How does electricity move through wires? Morgridge institute for electric current the physics classroomdeparment of at union university. What is electricity? Learn. The powerplant generates a potential difference between the hot and neutral lineelectrons, wants to travel in such way that it reduces energy. When electricity gathers in one place it is known as static (the word means something that does not move); Electricity moves from to another called current our goal understand how flows a power source through wires, lighting up leds, spinning motors, and powering communication devices. Electricity and how does it flow? Ask about ireland. These are called 'free electrons' because 11 nov 2017 for most people, electricity is a mysterious force that somehow magically appears when we flip light switch or plug in an appliance. Why? Let say will take some example of an element atom where we have the nucleus, protons and electrons. The simplest explanation is the analogy most textbooks used. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons a wire. The si unit for measuring an electric current is the ampere, which flow of 28 jan 2014 nevertheless, unconnected battery does slowly leak electricity through air and will eventually end up uncharged if left sitting long enough (internal this means that there no linear relationship between electrical voltage applied to resulting travels it 19 feb signal traveling down cable was isolated electromagnetic wave, then would travel at speed light in vacuum crather, involves interaction both field fluctuations (the wave) how flows. The spinning turbines make the electricity, which flows into power lines and to our houses. What is electricity and how does it flow? Ask about ireland. Electrical energy is produced by the movement of certain particles. This flow is often called an 'electric current'. Current does not have to do with how far charges move electric current (electricity) is a flow or movement of electrical charge. The force experienced by the electrons is caused 20 jun 2016 firstly, nothing really travels through wires on poles all way from power plant to your home. Moving charge is an electric current and we use that to push power through wires if the carriers are densely packed into wire, then there does not have be a high speed. Just like water, which can only flow down a hill, an electric current
Views: 26 tell sparky
Running an Electrical Current Through Water
 
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Anthony from Science Ninja's shows us the safe way to try out a toaster in a bath tub. DO NOT TRY THIS AT HOME! __________ http://site3.ca
Views: 2131 Site 3 CoLaboratory
Charge, Current and Voltage | GCSE Physics | Doodle Science
 
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Follow me!: https://twitter.com/DoodleSci Doodle Science teaches you high school physics in a less boring way in almost no time! Script: There are three things to understand when we talk about electricity: Charge, Current and Voltage. All objects and materials have charge; it's created by the net of electrons or protons. If there are more electrons, the substance will be negatively charged and if there are more protons, it will be positively charged. When a non-conductive substance such as plastic gets a charge by having electrons transferred to it, it creates a static electric charge. Such as when you rub a balloon on your head and it sticks or when you put your hand on a Van Der Graff. Charge is measured in Coulombs and 1 coulomb is equal to the charge of approximately 6.241x1018 electrons. Now the movement of this charge is called current and it's best to think of it as a river. Just as we measure the amount of water passing a point every second, current is the amount of coulombs passing a point every second. To measure it, we can put an ammeter in place to tell us how many coulombs are passing that point each second. But because physicists and engineers use this measurement so much, they decided to give is a name called an ampere or Amp. Voltage or potential difference is a bit trickier to understand. The way I like to visualize it is by thinking of a lake that is completely still and therefore has no current. If we were to tilt the lake on its side, the water would rush from the higher gravitational potential to the lower. It's the same concept with Voltage, only instead of gravitational potential difference; we give it an electrical potential difference. We do this by using a battery for example, the battery gives one side of a wire more electric potential energy than the other side, so the current travels through the wire. The more potential difference we give it, the faster the current flows. Just as a steeper waterfall causes water to fall quicker. But why do we call it potential? Because it is the potential to do work. The unit for the potential to do work is given in Joules per Coulomb and 1 of these is the same as 1 Volt because people decided to give it a name. Lets think of a 1.5V battery connected to a light bulb. What does the 1.5V mean? Well it means if 1 coulomb were to come out of one end of the battery, it could transfer 1.5J of light and heat before it entered the other side again.
Views: 60668 DoodleScience
How the Heart Works - Electrical System of the Heart Animation - Cardiac Conduction Video - ECG
 
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The cardiac conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells in the walls of the heart that send signals to the heart muscle causing it to contract. The main components of the cardiac conduction system are the SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, and Purkinje fibers. The SA node (anatomical pacemaker) starts the sequence by causing the atrial muscles to contract. From there, the signal travels to the AV node, through the bundle of His, down the bundle branches, and through the Purkinje fibers, causing the ventricles to contract. This signal creates an electrical current that can be seen on a graph called an Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG). Doctors use an EKG to monitor the cardiac conduction system’s electrical activity in the heart. Electrical conduction system of the heart The normal electrical conduction in the heart allows the impulse that is generated by the sinoatrial node (SA node) of the heart to be propagated to, and stimulate, the cardiac muscle (myocardium). The myocardium contracts after stimulation. It is the ordered, rhythmic stimulation of the myocardium during the cardiac cycle that allows efficient contraction of the heart, thereby allowing blood to be pumped throughout the body. Electrical signals arising in the SA node (located in the right atrium) stimulate the atria to contract, and travel to the atrioventricular node (AV node), which is located in the interatrial septum. After a delay, the stimulus diverges and is conducted through the left and right bundle of His to the respective Purkinje fibers for each side of the heart, as well as to the endocardium at the apex of the heart, then finally to the ventricular epicardium. On the microscopic level, the wave of depolarization propagates to adjacent cells via gap junctions located on the intercalated disk. The heart is a functional syncytium (not to be confused with a true "syncytium" in which all the cells are fused together, sharing the same plasma membrane as in skeletal muscle). In a functional syncytium, electrical impulses propagate freely between cells in every direction, so that the myocardium functions as a single contractile unit. This property allows rapid, synchronous depolarization of the myocardium. While advantageous under normal circumstances, this property can be detrimental, as it has potential to allow the propagation of incorrect electrical signals. These gap junctions can close to isolate damaged or dying tissue, as in a myocardial infarction (heart attack). The heart’s electrical system is responsible for creating the signals that trigger the heart to beat. The process begins in the upper chambers of the heart (atria), which pump blood into the lower chambers (ventricles). The ventricles then pump blood to the body and lungs. This coordinated action occurs because the heart is "wired" to send electrical signals that tell the chambers of the heart when to contract. The Heartbeat How the Heart is Wired You may know or have heard of someone with an artificial pacemaker or other implantable device to regulate the beat of the heart. Pacemakers and the wiring that run through the heart coordinate contractions in the upper and lower chambers, which makes the heartbeat more powerful so it can do its job effectively. We normally have our own natural pacemakers that tell the heart when to beat. The master pacemaker is located in the atrium (upper chamber). It acts like a spark plug that fires in a regular, rhythmic pattern to regulate the heart's rhythm. This "spark plug" is called the sinoatrial (SA), or sinus node. It sends signals to the rest of the heart so the muscles will contract. First, as soon as the signal is sent, the atrium contracts. Like a pebble dropped into a pool of water, the electrical signal from the sinus node spreads through the atria. Next, the signal travels to the area that connects the atria with the ventricles. This electrical connection is critical. Without it, the signal would never reach the ventricles, the major pumping chambers of the heart. The electrical signal reaches another natural pacemaker called the atrioventricular node (AV node). As the signal continues and crosses to the ventricles, it passes through a bundle of tissue called the AV bundle, also called the bundle of His. The bundle divides into thin, wire-like structures called bundle branches that extend into the right and left ventricles. The electrical signal travels down the bundle branches to thin fibers. Lastly, these fibers send out the signal to the muscles of the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood into the arteries. In a normal heart, this coordinated series of electrical signals occurs about once every second, maintaining the steady, rhythmic pattern of the heart’s beat.
Views: 40794 AniMed
How Does Electricity Flow Through A Wire?
 
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How does current flow in a conducting wire? Quora. Electrical wiring & circuitry how does your electricity flow? . Electricity passes through metallic conductors as a flow of negatively. Electricity flows through a wire youtube. The speed of this flow has multiple meanings electrons due to pressure, called voltage. The charge flow (current) is a flowing motion usually of electrons, and electrons an electric current flows when move through conductor, such as metal wire. This constitutes the flow of current. Electric current the physics classroom. In electric circuits this charge is often carried by moving electrons in a wire. How does electricity flow along a wire? Youtube. Parallel moving electrons is the key to why electricity flows through bulk of in conductor electron wire flow or produce by cells? The are called 'electric current' just how fast does a wire? To answer this that conducted copper wires your home consists as physical quantity, current rate at which charge past point on particles carry circuit mobile 1 feb 2017 negative essentially 'hot' real work when into appliances and like water flowing emptiness pipe, able move within empty space between atoms such wire, all those were previously about randomly get together start an electric. How does electricity 'flow' through a wire to make light bulb glow when an electrical flow is traveling down metal wire, what going understanding learn about electricity, current, voltage travel the or on outer surface? Copper and electricityschool science. Conductors, insulators, and electron flow. Basic concepts of electronic basics electrical current dummiesspeed electricity wikipedia. Bbc bitesize gcse physics current, voltage and resistance. Close the switch to apply voltage electrons start flow through. The difference between voltages in a wire determines the electrical current, called amps 16 feb 2014 when this voltage (electrons stacked up with no way to flow) becomes large enough conduct through resistance of air, it will equalize it's electric current is flow electrons conductor. Why is it that in high power electric wires, the ucsb science line. While moving, electrons may collide with each other, thereby producing friction. Increase the it is because free electrons are already spread through wire wires, and so i have cut pasted information found on internet. Given a surface through which metal wire passes, electrons move in both directions across the at an equal word electricity refers generally to movement of (or other charge carriers) conductor presence potential and electric field. Electromagnetism does electricity flow on the surface of a wire or in how electric current wire? (232752) deparment physics at union university. The force required to make current flow through a conductor is called voltage and potential the other term of thus in wire concentrated on surface wire, as from our basic knowledge that electrons stays at outer shell lot people think electron moving along freely like cars go any (thing electricity can through) made atoms picture 3. This is the resistance we find through wire 25 apr 2014 dc electricity travels bulk cross section of.
Views: 457 S Answers
Transmission Lines - Signal Transmission and Reflection
 
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Visualization of the voltages and currents for electrical signals along a transmission line. My Patreon page is at https://www.patreon.com/EugeneK
current flow in a wire
 
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STD 10 Science and Technology - Electricity
Views: 38599 MahaEduTechNet
Energy & Electricity in Science : How Does Light Travel?
 
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In order to understand how light travels, it's important to think of it as a wave or a particle. Learn about the properties of light, such as reflection and refraction, with information from a science teacher in this free video on properties of light and science lessons. Expert: Steve Jones Contact: www.marlixint.com Bio: Steve Jones is an experienced mathematics and science teacher. Filmmaker: Paul Volniansky
Views: 12837 eHow
Tree branch touching a 22000 Volts power line
 
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In this demo I show what could happen when a tree or tree branch touches a live overhead line. 22000 Volts 50 Hertz Initially some current start flowing to ground, steam develops in the branch and carbon tracking occurs, which increases the current flow. At some stage the current will get the whole lot on fire and current increases till a protective earth fault relay trips the supply. Often power - lines will re-liven again multiple times so always stay well clear and notify the local power authority. On a feeder line, when the tree becomes fully conductive, a massive flash-over occurs at High Voltage and several hundred or even thousands of Amps. The risk of step potential is very significant nearby the base of the tree and up to several meters away. e.g. a Voltage of many thousands of Volts between each meter of ground away from the tree stem. The tree branch is a cutting of the Acmena or Monkey Apple tree which is a pest in New Zealand as it propagates very easily and smothers native plants. Caution High Voltage !! Electricity 240 Volts at 45 Amps is stepped up via an 11 kV transformer with resonant Capacitors to yield in a 22 kV Voltage.
Views: 1087172 RODALCO2007
Energy & Electricity in Science : How Fast Does Light Travel?
 
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Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation, which always travels at a speed of 186,000 miles per second in a vacuum. Discover how light travels slower in transparent media with information from a science teacher in this free video on electromagnetic radiation and science lessons. Expert: Steve Jones Contact: www.marlixint.com Bio: Steve Jones is an experienced mathematics and science teacher. Filmmaker: Paul Volniansky
Views: 5278 eHow
World's First Electric Generator
 
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Huge thanks to the Royal Institution, Professor Frank James, and Katie Atmore for filming. For the Sixty Symbols version of this experiment click http://bit.ly/RGfLY5 Michael Faraday created the first electric generator in 1831 using a coil of wire and a permanent magnet. When the magnet was moved relative to the coil, current was induced in the coil. A similar experiment can be performed with a copper tube and a magnet. Although copper is not magnetic, it is a conductor. As the magnet falls through the pipe, the magnetic field changes over different sections of the pipe. This induces swirling currents (called eddy currents), which create a magetic field that opposes the motion of the magnet. This means work must be done to move the magnet through the pipe. This work generates the electrical energy, which is then dissipated as thermal energy in the pipe. The same basic principle is used to generate electricity throughout the world: moving a magnet inside copper coils. Experiments A Cappella http://bit.ly/TtdflV Where Did The Earth Come From http://bit.ly/VQBzQJ The Coastline Paradox http://bit.ly/TIapxM Microwave Grape Plasma http://bit.ly/QkCwUt Music by Kevin McLeod (http://www.incompetech.com) Sneaky Snitch and Danse Macabre
Views: 1759758 Veritasium
Electrical Conduction System of the Heart Cardiac | SA Node, AV Node, Bundle of His
 
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Electrical Conduction System of the Heart (cardiac conduction system): This video explains how the SA node, AV node, bundle of His, right and left bundle branch, and purkinje fibers allow the heart to contract which causes the PQRST wave you see on an EKG. Lecture Notes: http://www.registerednursern.com/how-to-remember-the-electrical-conduction-system-of-the-heart/ Free Quiz on Electrical System of the Heart: http://www.registerednursern.com/quiz-on-the-electrical-conduction-system-of-the-heart-anatomy-pathophysiology. Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=registerednursern Nursing School Supplies: http://www.registerednursern.com/the-ultimate-list-of-nursing-medical-supplies-and-items-a-new-nurse-student-nurse-needs-to-buy/ Nursing Job Search: http://www.registerednursern.com/nursing-career-help/ Visit our website RegisteredNurseRN.com for free quizzes, nursing care plans, salary information, job search, and much more: http://www.registerednursern.com Check out other Videos: https://www.youtube.com/user/RegisteredNurseRN/videos Popular Playlists: "NCLEX Study Strategies": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWtwCDmLHyX2UeHofCIcgo0 "Nursing Skills Videos": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUhd_qQYEbp0Eab3uUKhgKb "Nursing School Study Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfWBO40qeDmmaMwMHJEWc9Ms "Nursing School Tips & Questions": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVQok-t1X5ZMGgQr3IMBY9M "Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUkW_DpJekN_Y0lFkVNFyVF "Types of Nursing Specialties": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfW8dRD72gUFa5W7XdfoxArp "Healthcare Salary Information": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVN0vmEP59Tx2bIaB_3Qhdh "New Nurse Tips": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVTqH6LIoAD2zROuzX9GXZy "Nursing Career Help": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfVXjptWyvj2sx1k1587B_pj "EKG Teaching Tutorials": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfU-A9UTclI0tOYrNJ1N5SNt "Personality Types": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfU0qHnOjj2jf4Hw8aJaxbtm "Dosage & Calculations for Nurses": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfUYdl0TZQ0Tc2-hLlXlHNXq "Diabetes Health Managment": https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLQrdx7rRsKfXtEx17D7zC1efmWIX-iIs9 Helps prepare you for the HESI Anatomy and physiology section on the HESI A2 exam.
Views: 452116 RegisteredNurseRN
KIDS Driving Power Wheels Ride On Car to a DRIVE THRU
 
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Do you crave DONUTS now? Karina and Ronald sneak out from the house and drive Power Wheels ride-on to drive-thru to get donuts! SIS vs BRO instagram @ sisvsbro_karina_ronald Karina has a new instagram @ kurzawa_karina Ronald's new instagram @ ronaldkurzawa NEW MERCH: https://www.sisvsbro.com Welcome to SIS vs BRO! This is where Karina and Ronald join forces to challenge each other in countless fun videos! Challenges, gaming, and more!!! Be sure to SUBSCRIBE and we will see you in the next video!!! Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/karinavsronald/
Views: 13263813 SIS vs BRO
Uniform Electric Field, Motion of Charged Particles, Electron - Physics Practice Problems
 
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This physics video tutorial discusses the motion of charged particles such as an electron and a proton in an uniform electric field. Particles with a positive charge will accelerate in the direction of the electric field. The opposite is true for negatively charged particles. This video contains plenty of examples and practice problems such as calculating the net force on an electron in an electric field, the acceleration, final speed of an electron accelerating from rest, kinetic energy, and the time it takes the electron to travel from one end of the plate to the other end. The electric field is generated across two parallel plates. In addition, the kinetic energy was calculated using the work energy principle / thereom where Work = Force x displacement is also equal to the change in kinetic energy.
How Electricity Passes through Human body for A.C. & D.C. Systems
 
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Gives a clear idea regarding how electric Current Passes through a human body when a person goes in contact with live wire and necessary constraints to experience shock etc.....
Views: 1050 seshasai kumar
Who Still Denies Electric Currents in Space? | Space News
 
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EU2017: Future Science -- Rebroadcast—only $29: https://www.electricuniverse.live As we’ve reported recently, new papers in peer-reviewed astrophysical journals propose that powerful electric currents flow in extra-galactic jets and that the jets themselves are “fundamentally electromagnetic structures.” However, if you follow science media, it’s likely that you’ve not noticed any attempt to contextualize the development as significant for astrophysics. One person who has noticed this disconnect is Thunderbolts colleague Chris Reeve, who has spent many years documenting online discourse on scientific controversies. Recently, Chris published a commentary exploring why the recognition of vast, cosmic electric currents has apparently yet to register either with science journalists or most online commentators. In this episode, we present Chris' comments, published in posts on the website Slashdot.org. Chris' Slashdot posts, complete with links to the many references in this Space News: https://slashdot.org/comments.pl?cid=56210991&sid=11810879&tid=384 https://science.slashdot.org/story/18/03/09/2214254/can-electricity-travel-through-space-on-astrophysical-jets Chris' Google Plus Page: https://plus.google.com/+ChrisReeveOnlineScientificDiscourseIsBroken If you see a CC with this video, it means that subtitles are available. To find out which ones, click on the Gear Icon in the lower right area of the video box and click on “subtitles” in the drop-down box. Then click on the subtitle that you would like. Become a Producer through the PATREON Rewards program -- https://www.patreon.com/tboltsproject Subscribe to Thunderbolts Update newsletter: http://eepurl.com/ETy41 The Thunderbolts Project Home: http://www.thunderbolts.info Essential Guide to the Electric Universe: http://www.thunderbolts.info/wp/eg-contents/ Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/thunderboltsproject Twitter: @tboltsproject Electric Universe by Wal Thornhill: http://www.holoscience.com/wp/ Electric Universe T-shirts and Gifts: http://stickmanonstone.com/ Copyrighted materials are used according to the Multimedia Fair Use Guidelines. The ideas expressed in videos presented on The Thunderbolts Project YouTube Channel do not necessarily express the views of T-Bolts Group Inc or The Thunderbolts Project(TM).
Views: 23602 ThunderboltsProject
Wave-Powered Electricity Goes Online In Hawaii
 
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The first wave-produced electricity to go online in the U.S. is captured in the waters off the coast of Hawaii, by a tall buoy bobs and sways in the water. The buoy uses the rise and fall of the waves to generate electricity. The current then travels through an undersea cable for a mile to a military base. From there it's fed into Oahu’s power grid. By some estimates, the ocean’s endless motion packs enough power to meet a quarter of America’s energy needs. This could dramatically reduce the nation’s reliance on oil, gas and coal. Wave energy technology lags well behind wind and solar power, however, and has important technical hurdles still to be overcome. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/wave-powered-electricity-makes-us-debut-hawaii/ http://www.wochit.com This video was produced by YT Wochit News using http://wochit.com
Views: 541 Wochit News
Electrical fireball in Lachine
 
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To use this video in a commercial player or in broadcasts please email [email protected]
Views: 4660133 Huw Griffiths
Action Potential Explained - The Neuron
 
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Action Potential Explained - The Neuron. An Action potential is the neurons way of transporting electrical signals from one cell to the next. This is a picture of a neuron, where you have dendrites in one end, and the axon terminal in the other end. In the middle of the neuron you will find the axon, which is where the electrical signal will travel from the dendrites to the axon terminal to the synapse. This is a picture of a myelinated neuron, which is covered with a myelin sheath that allows the electrical signal to travel faster through the axon. So instead of activating every ion channel down the axon, only channels in the small spaces between each myelin sheath called the Node of Ranvier is activated and generates an action potential. So lets take a closer look at the axon. On the membrane of the neuron, you will find small ion channels that are closed when the cell is in its resting state. The neuron is able to create an action potential because of the concentration difference of ions between the intracellular space and the extracellular space. There is a higher concentration of sodium ions outside the neuron and a higher concentration of potassium inside the neuron. the extracellular space is more positive than inside the neuron. This creates a voltage difference of -- 70 mV, which is created with the help of leaky ion channels that are more permeable to potassium ions than sodium ions, which will cause potassium to leave the cell and only small amount of sodium to enter. The sodium potassium pump also regulates the intracellular environment, by pumping out 3 sodium ions in exchange for 2 potassium ions. The -- 70 mV is the neurons resting potential, but when the neuron is stimulated by a presynaptic neuron, it causes sodium channels to open, letting in positive ions. This will change the electrical environment and make it more positive on the inside and less positive on the outside. This is called Depolarization, and which causes a chain reaction where the next sodium channels will open letting in positive ions, all the way down the axon. Shortly after a channels have opened, they will close again and potassium channels will then open letting out positive potassium ions, to recreate the negative environment inside the neuron and the positive environment outside. This happens at around + 40 mV, and causes a Repolarization where the intracellular space is becoming negative again. The neuron then reaches a state of Hyperpolarization where the cell has let out too many ions and has now become more negative than the cells resting potential. This is quickly corrected by the leaky channels and the sodium potassium pump, and the neuron stabilize at the resting potential at a -- 70 mV. The action potential that has traveled through the axon, reaches the axon terminal, where vesicles with neurotransmitters are released out into the synaptic cleft to transport the signal to another neuron.
Views: 597315 Bittersweet Biology
How Hearing Works? - Process of Hearing in Human Ear Animation - Physiology Anatomy Histology
 
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As sound waves enter the ear, they travel through the outer ear, the external auditory canal, and strike the eardrum causing it to vibrate. The central part of the eardrum is connected to a small bone of the middle ear called the malleus (hammer). As the malleus vibrates, it transmits the sound vibrations to the other two small bones or ossicles of the middle ear, the incus and stapes. As the stapes moves, it pushes a structure called the oval window in and out. This action is passed onto the cochlea, which is a fluid-filled snail-like structure that contains the receptor organ for hearing. The cochlea contains the spiral organ of Corti, which is the receptor organ for hearing. It consists of tiny hair cells that translate the fluid vibration of sounds from its surrounding ducts into electrical impulses that are carried to the brain by sensory nerves. As the stapes rocks back and forth against the oval window, it transmits pressure waves of sound through the fluid of the cochlea, sending the organ of Corti in the cochlear duct into motion. The fibers near the cochlear apex resonate to lower frequency sound while fibers near the oval window respond to higher frequency sound. ----- The auditory system is the sensory system for the sense of hearing. It includes both the sensory organs (the ears) and the auditory parts of the sensory system. Peripheral auditory system The auditory periphery, starting with the ear, is the first stage of the transduction of sound in a hearing organism. While not part of the nervous system, its components feed directly into the nervous system, performing mechanoeletrical transduction of sound pressure-waves into neural action potentials. Outer ear The folds of cartilage surrounding the ear canal are called the pinna. Sound waves are reflected and attenuated when they hit the pinna, and these changes provide additional information that will help the brain determine the direction from which the sounds came. The sound waves enter the auditory canal, a deceptively simple tube. The ear canal amplifies sounds that are between 3 and 12 kHz. At the far end of the ear canal is the tympanic membrane, which marks the beginning of the middle ear. Middle ear Auditory ossicles from a deep dissection of the tympanic cavity Sound waves traveling through the ear canal will hit the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. This wave information travels across the air-filled middle ear cavity via a series of delicate bones: the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup). These ossicles act as a lever, converting the lower-pressure eardrum sound vibrations into higher-pressure sound vibrations at another, smaller membrane called the oval (or elliptical) window. The manubrium (handle) of the malleus articulates with the tympanic membrane, while the footplate of the stapes articulates with the oval window. Higher pressure is necessary at the oval window than at the typanic membrane because the inner ear beyond the oval window contains liquid rather than air. The stapedius reflex of the middle ear muscles helps protect the inner ear from damage by reducing the transmission of sound energy when the stapedius muscle is activated in response to sound. The middle ear still contains the sound information in wave form; it is converted to nerve impulses in the cochlea. Inner ear Cochlea Diagrammatic longitudinal section of the cochlea. Scala media is labeled as ductus cochlearis at right. Anatomical terminology Main article: Inner ear The inner ear consists of the cochlea and several non-auditory structures. The cochlea has three fluid-filled sections, and supports a fluid wave driven by pressure across the basilar membrane separating two of the sections. Strikingly, one section, called the cochlear duct or scala media, contains endolymph, a fluid similar in composition to the intracellular fluid found inside cells. The organ of Corti is located in this duct on the basilar membrane, and transforms mechanical waves to electric signals in neurons. The other two sections are known as the scala tympani and the scala vestibuli; these are located within the bony labyrinth, which is filled with fluid called perilymph, similar in composition to cerebrospinal fluid. The chemical difference between the fluids endolymph and perilymph fluids is important for the function of the inner ear due to electrical potential differences between potassium and calcium ions. The plan view of the human cochlea (typical of all mammalian and most vertebrates) shows where specific frequencies occur along its length. The frequency is an approximately exponential function of the length of the cochlea within the Organ of Corti. In some species, such as bats and dolphins, the relationship is expanded in specific areas to support their active sonar capability. Organ of Corti Main article: Organ of Corti The organ of Corti located at the scala media
Views: 196395 Science Art
Cable Basics; Transmission, Reflection, Impedance Matching, TDR
 
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Instruments such as the Analog Arts ST985 (www.analogarts.com), based on the TDR and wave transmission concept, characterize the length, impedance, and other characteristics of a cable. When a signal travels through a cable, it is undisturbed until it encounters an impedance change, and if it encounters an open circuit, all of the wave reflects back to the source. The characteristic impedance of the cable and the load impedance, determine what happens to the signal at the load. A higher load impedance reflects a part of the signal back to the source. There is no reflection when the load impedance is smaller than the impedance of the cable. However, smaller loads cause signal loss. An equal load impedance prevents signal reflection while delivering maximum amount of power to the load. An impedance mismatch can happen whenever the signal medium changes. For example, when the source is connected to the cable or at the load. These mismatches cause reflection and signal loss. In general, the source output impedance, cable characteristic impedance, and load impedance must be made equal for optimal performance. Impedance matching maximizes the power transfer to the load and eliminates signal reflection. A perfect impedance matching transfers half of the source power to the load. When the signal wavelength becomes a significant portion of the cable length, without a proper termination, reflection distorts the signal. The reflected wave changes the amplitude of the signal throughout the cable. At the source, it acts like a load, which if not properly addressed, can damage the signal generator. At certain frequencies, the reflected wave interferes constructively with the signal. The resultant signal is referred to as a standing wave. A TDR consists of a pulse generator, a monitoring instrument device, and a DSP. Generally, in these instruments, the generator outputs a fast transition pulse. This pulse travels to the end of the cable and reflects back. But first it is divided by the voltage divider formed due to the source resistance and the cable impedance. The division factor is then calculated based on which the impedance of the cable is found. The divided signal travels through the cable at a fraction of the speed of light in vacuum. This fraction is referred to as the velocity factor of the cable. For a coax it is about point 67. The time it takes for the signal to reach the end of the cable and reflect to the source, is used to calculate the length of the cable. Impedance matching maximizes the power transfer to the load and prevents reflection. Damaging a cable, by twisting, bending, or kinking, or placing improper signal connectors in the signal path cause an impedance mismatch resulting in reflection, and consequently less than ideal signal handling.
Views: 9967 Academia
Cardiac Conduction System and Understanding ECG, Animation.
 
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This video and other related images/videos (in HD) are available for instant download licensing here: https://www.alilamedicalmedia.com/-/galleries/images-videos-by-medical-specialties/cardiology-and-vascular-diseases ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia The cardiac conduction system consists of the following components: - The sinoatrial node, or SA node, located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava. This is the natural pacemaker of the heart. It initiates all heartbeat and determines heart rate. Electrical impulses from the SA node spread throughout both atria and stimulate them to contract. - The atrioventricular node, or AV node, located on the other side of the right atrium, near the AV valve. The AV node serves as electrical gateway to the ventricles. It delays the passage of electrical impulses to the ventricles. This delay is to ensure that the atria have ejected all the blood into the ventricles before the ventricles contract. - The AV node receives signals from the SA node and passes them onto the atrioventricular bundle - AV bundle or bundle of His. - This bundle is then divided into right and left bundle branches which conduct the impulses toward the apex of the heart. The signals are then passed onto Purkinje (pur-KIN-jee) fibers, turning upward and spreading throughout the ventricular myocardium. Electrical activities of the heart can be recorded in the form of electrocardiogram, ECG or EKG. An ECG is a composite recording of all the action potentials produced by the nodes and the cells of the myocardium. Each wave or segment of the ECG corresponds to a certain event of the cardiac electrical cycle. When the atria are full of blood, the SA node fires, electrical signals spread throughout the atria and cause them to depolarize. This is represented by the P wave on the ECG. Atrial contraction , or atrial systole (SIS-toe-lee) starts about 100 mili-seconds after the P wave begins. The P-Q segment represents the time the signals travel from the SA node to the AV node. The QRS complex marks the firing of the AV node and represents ventricular depolarization: - Q wave corresponds to depolarization of the interventricular septum. - R wave is produced by depolarization of the main mass of the ventricles. - S wave represents the last phase of ventricular depolarization at the base of the heart. - Atrial repolarization also occurs during this time but the signal is obscured by the large QRS complex. The S-T segment reflects the plateau in the myocardial action potential. This is when the ventricles contract and pump blood. The T wave represents ventricular repolarization immediately before ventricular relaxation, or ventricular diastole (dy-ASS-toe-lee). The cycle repeats itself with every heartbeat. All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
Views: 2113265 Alila Medical Media

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