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SoMAS - The Down, Up, and Out Dynamics of Carbon in a Productive Shelf Sea: The Gulf of Maine
 
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Cynthia Pilskaln from UMASS Dartmouth speaks at SoMAS on Friday, April 13, 2012. "The Down, Up and Out Dynamics of Carbon in a Productive Shelf Sea: The Gulf of Maine"
Views: 69 SoMAS SBU
CryoSat and Sentinel Unveil Antarctic Ice Dynamics
 
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Antarctica’s ice shelves are thinning and recently scientists have discovered huge canyons cutting through the underbelly of these shelves, potentially making them more fragile. CryoSat and Sentinel-1 missions shine new light on this hidden world. There are huge inverted canyons in the underside of ice shelves, but little is known about how they form and how they affect the stability of the ice sheet. One type is thought to be caused by subglacial water that drains from beneath the ice sheet and runs into the ocean. In this region, the ocean water is stratified, with the warmer water at the bottom. However, as the colder meltwater pours down into the ocean it then rises because it is less dense than the seawater – but as it rises it drags up the warm bottom water which causes the underbelly of the floating ice shelf to melt. Another type is thought to be caused by the way ocean water circulates under the shelf. Scientists have been using ESA’s CryoSat to study changes in the surface of the ice shelf and the Copernicus Sentinel-1 mission to study how shelves flow to learn more about what’s going on hidden from view. Their focus has been on the Dotson ice shelf in West Antarctica. Noel Gourmelen from the University of Edinburgh said they have found subtle changes in both surface elevation data from CryoSat and ice velocity from Sentinel-1 which shows that melting is not uniform, but has centred on a 5km-wide channel that runs 60km along the underside of the shelf. Unlike most recent observations, they think that the channel under Dotson is eroded by warm water, about 1°C, as it circulates under the shelf, stirred clockwise and upward by Earth’s rotation. More information: https://www.hydro-international.com/content/news/cryosat-and-sentinel-unveil-antarctic-ice-dynamics Video courtesy: ESA/University of Edinburgh–N. Gourmelen/Planetary Visions
Views: 174 Hydro International
Internal Waves and Ocean Dynamics
 
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Renowned oceanographer and geophysicist Walter Munk talks about the role of internal waves in ocean dynamics. He notes that only in recent years have oceanographers come to understand that internal waves can have a profound impact on what happens near the shore.
Views: 309 INTELECOM
Investigating the Flow Dynamics of Ice Shelves using Laboratory Experiments, Simple Theoretical...
 
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2014 Fall Meeting Section: Cryosphere Session: Modeling of the Cryosphere: Glaciers and Ice Sheets II Title: Investigating the Flow Dynamics of Ice Shelves using Laboratory Experiments, Simple Theoretical Models and Geophysical Data Analysis Authors: Worster, G, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom Hindmarsh, R C A, NERC British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, CB3, United Kingdom Wearing, M, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom Abstract: Ice-shelf calving-rates and the buttressing ice shelves provide to grounded ice are both difficult to model and quantify. An increased understanding of the mechanics of this process is imperative in determining the dynamics of marine ice sheets and consequently predicting their future extent and thickness. Alley et al. (2008) proposed an empirically derived calving law, relating the calving rate to the strain rate at the calving front. However, Hindmarsh (2012) showed that a similar relationship could be deduced by considering the viscous flow of the ice shelf. We investigate the relationship between the ice shelf flow field and the strain rate field in the area close to the calving front. Analysis is undertaken of ice surface velocity data for a range of large Antarctic ice shelves (data from Rignot et al., 2011) and an inferred strain rate field produced from that data. These geophysical results are compared with a series of simple mathematical models from which thickness profiles and velocity fields can be obtained for a range of geometries and flow regimes. Fluid mechanical laboratory experiments simulating the flow of an ice shelf in an idealized channel geometry provide a further comparison to the theoretical models and geophysical data, and allow a wider range of parameters to be tested. We show some results from these laboratory experiments aimed at exploring the success of the mathematical models. Cite as: Author(s) (2014), Title, Abstract C41C-04 presented at 2014 Fall Meeting, AGU, San Francisco, Calif., 15-19 Dec. Learn more here: http://abstractsearch.agu.org/meetings/2014/FM/C41C-04
Arctic Feedback Dynamics Presentation by David Wasdell (Part 1)
 
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http://www.envisionation.co.uk/index.php/videos/arctic-dynamics Responses To Arctic Dynamics: "Congratulations! Have now seen video through and am deeply impressed by the way you get the whole Arctic issue across. Better than I could have done. This deserves maximal exposure in the world." Peter Wadhams - Head of the Polar Ocean Physics Group in the Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge. "A very high impact presentation indeed!... I would like to emphasise the importance and value of your brilliant work, and invite you to speak once more at the ICES Biennial Workshop here in Geneva - in front of 45 chosen people. Bob Bishop - Chairman & Founder of BBWORLD Consulting Services Sàrl and President & Founder of The ICES Foundation, both Geneva-based organizations. "I spent time listening to your video in which I found to be a very compelling argument for climate change impact of potentially horrendous proportions in the immediate future. ... I felt the quality of this recording to be far superior to some of the previous ones you made. I think you have reached the capacity to produce a very professional level of video presentations. I was thinking of sharing this latest presentation with the Director of INternational Center for Migration, Health and Development in Geneva." George Dorros - Completed a long career with the World Health Organization. Professional expertise in the field of Change Management
Views: 12349 Nick Breeze
Science on the Sound :“PEACHes and Stream: Investigating Shelf Water Exchange into the Deep Ocean”
 
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On May 25, 2017, the UNC Coastal Studies Institute (UNC CSI) hosted a lecture on the Gulf Stream and the exchange of continental shelf water into the deep ocean part of its “Science on the Sound” lecture series. This series, held monthly, highlights information on coastal topics and issues in northeast North Carolina. This month, the program featured Mike Muglia, Research Associate with the UNC Coastal Studies Institute. Mr. Muglia’s presentation, entitled “PEACHes and Stream: Investigating Shelf Water Exchange into the Deep Ocean”, featured discussion on the interaction between the continental shelf water and the deep ocean, including the Gulf Stream. Mr. Muglia also highlighted some of his current research investigating the exchanges between these water masses and their important role they play in coastal systems. The dynamics off Cape Hatteras are currently quite exceptional. Many different water masses converge here: Mid Atlantic Bight shelf water, South Atlantic Bight shelf water, Chesapeake Bay plume, Slope Sea water, Gulf Stream water, upper Labrador Sea water, the Deep Western Boundary Current, and perhaps even Antarctic Intermediate water. Current UNC CSI collaborative research projects, including the North Carolina Renewable Ocean Energy Research Program and the Processes driving Exchange at Cape Hatteras (PEACH) project have begun to examine this confluence to understand the physical dynamics that evolve in the ever-changing dance between these water masses. Fronts, like those seen on weather maps, also occur in the ocean and influence fishing, boating, and beach going on the Outer Banks. Join us for an engaging presentation with Mike Muglia as he highlights many of these projects, and discusses what they mean to our community.
Chasing Waves: Measuring Skyscraper-High Waves Beneath the Sea
 
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(Visit: http://www.uctv.tv/) “Internal waves,” large waves that break underwater, can displace the ocean’s layers, mixing cold, nutrient-rich water below with the waters above. Matthew Alford of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography introduces these waves, describes the technology used to observe them and discusses their three primary impacts: interfering with submarine navigation, divers and offshore structures; fueling biological production and redistributing algae and larvae by transporting ocean nutrients into shallow coastal regions; and predicting climate change in conjunction with computer simulations of the ocean. Recorded on 11/13/2014. Series: "UC San Diego Founders’ Symposium" [Science] [Show ID: 29029]
PolarConnect Event: David Thesenga on Ice Shelf Flow and Fracture Dynamics, 19 October 2016
 
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PolarTREC teacher David Thesenga and the Ice Shelf Flow and Fracture Dynamics research team discuss field work on the McMurdo Shear Zone (SZ) live from Antarctica.
Views: 48 PolarTREC
Internal wave dynamics (Yvan Dossmann)
 
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Technical note: audio is unavailable for the opening portions of this lecture. Lecture slides and video are presented.
Views: 1383 ARC CLEX
NCSU Coastal Dynamics Design Lab Presentation 2014
 
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This presentation was broadcast live on December 2, 2014. Students from the College of Design have been working for the past semester on design project proposals for Dare County, NC. The projects, Pro-Active Community Recovery Structures (PARCS), exhibit strategies for resilient architecture and landscapes that enhance recreation, tourism, and day-to-day life in the Outer Banks. The students will explain how their projects contribute to the natural and cultural quality of the Outer Banks while responding to the challenges associated with sea-level change and acute weather events such as hurricanes and Nor’easters. Each project demonstrates innovative design strategies for development in North Carolina’s upper coastal region.
Dynamic Ocean Topography in South Atlantic
 
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Dynamic Ocean Topography in South Atlantic More informationon are available on the following websites: - Open Altimeter Database (OpenADB), http://openadb.dgfi.badw.de - Deutsches Geodätisches Forschungsinstiuts (DGFI), http://www.dgfi.badw.de
Views: 218 MucDGFI
Maya: An Ocean [Boss]
 
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Boss in Maya is a dynamics module explicitly made for ocean waves and ripples. It's part of the Bifröst family which you typically use for creating liquids and gasses. In this tutorial we get started with Boss. Our goal is to create overlapping wave structures and finally place a boat in the ocean to see it's influence on the water surface.
Views: 457 Uhr
Shelf Morphology II
 
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Shore line modeling taking coastal erosion and depositional processes into account. Beach profile follows the sea level and barrier islands form during transgression. See: http://csdms.colorado.edu/wiki/Movie:Shelf_Morphology(2)
Views: 1423 CSDMSmovie
Predicting Marine Physical-Biogeochemical Variability in the Gulf of Mexico & Southeastern U.S.
 
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Abstract An integrated marine environment prediction system is developed and used to investigate marine physical-biogeochemical variability in the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern U.S. shelf seas. Such variability stem from variations in the shelf circulation, boundary current dynamics, impacts of severe weather forcing, as well as growing population and associated land use practices on transport of carbon and nutrients within terrestrial systems and their delivery to the coastal ocean. We will report our efforts in evaluating the performance of the coupled modeling system via extensive model and data comparisons, as well as findings from a suite of case studies. About the Presenter Dr. He is a Distinguished Professor of North Carolina State University and an Adjunct Scientist of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. His research expertise spans from coastal circulation dynamics, air-sea interaction, to biophysical interactions. As the director of the Ocean Observing and Modeling Group (OOMG), he conducts coastal ocean observations, remote sensing data analyses, and also leads the development of prediction models of ocean circulation, air-sea-wave interactions, physical-biogeochemical couplings, as well as data assimilation.
Views: 14 SECOORA
Coastal Zone Management: Coastal Dynamics
 
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Learn how coastal oceanography supports technical experts, coastal engineers, policy makers, and everyone involved in activities in coastal zones. More information: http://copernicus.eu/main/services
Views: 193 Copernicus EU
(63A256) Flexural Dynamics of Melting Ice Shelves
 
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Douglas MacAyeal and Olga Sergienko A conspicuous precursor of catastrophic ice-shelf break-up along the Antarctic Peninsula, reported widely in the literature, is the gradual increase in surface melting and consequent proliferation of supraglacial lake and dolines. Here we present analytical and numerical solutions for the flexure stresses within an ice shelf covered by lakes and dolines, both isolated and arrayed. We conclude that surface water promotes ice-shelf instability in 2 ways: (1) by water-assisted crevasse penetration, as previously noted, and (2) by the inducement of strong tensile flexure stresses (exceeding background spreading stress by 10 - 100 times) in response to surface water mass loads and \lq hydrostatic rebound\rq\ occurring when meltwater lakes drain.
Views: 206 Gary Glaciologist
Shelf Morphology II
 
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Shore line modeling taking coastal erosion and depositional processes into account. Beach profile follows the sea level and barrier islands form during transgression. Associate Professor in the department of Earth Sciences, Sergio Fagherazzi, University of Boston
Recent Big Ice Shelf Calving Events explained #LarsenC #PineIslandGlacier
 
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"The 2017 Pine Island Glacier and Larsen C Ice Shelf Calving Events" presented by Christopher Shuman. Originally presented at the Fall AGU 2017 conference on Tuesday, December 12, 2017 at 3:45 p.m. Release by NASA Scientific Visualization Studio https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jwOSWGlfZzI
Views: 4971 Climate State
How a Deep-Sea Offshore Drilling Rig Works
 
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After 22 hours, the crew of the Maersk Interceptor have assembled and lowered 551 feet of pipes into the water. Through them, a hydraulic hammer will operate to drive these pipes 131 feet below the seafloor. From: MIGHTY SHIPS: Maersk Interceptor http://bit.ly/2biRHN1
Views: 743188 Smithsonian Channel
How Columbus and Dynamics AX helps Natures Way Food
 
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Natures Way Foods combine the freshest lettuce with the latest food manufacturing technology. Find out how they are using Microsoft Dynamics AX, with Columbus, to reach 99.96% service levels, track their stock from purchase to the shelf, and deal with the complexities of customer requirements, such as secondary packaging. To find out more about the ColumbusFood solution visit www.columbusglobal.com
Views: 3225 Columbus Global
Internal waves
 
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This animation shows density layers in the South China Sea being perturbed by the regular back-and-forth tidal flow through the Luzon Strait. These leads to large amplitude internal waves (shown in red underwater, and in white when seen from above), being radiated west to the Chinese continental shelf. Animation courtesy of the researchers.
Earth System Science 21. On Thin Ice. Lecture 17. Glacier Dynamics
 
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UCI ESS 21: On Thin Ice (Winter 2014) Lec 17. On Thin Ice -- Glacier Dynamics -- View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/ess_21_on_thin_ice__climate_change_and_the_cryosphere.html Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info. More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: In recent decades we have observed a significant reduction of the cryosphere due to anthropogenic climate change. The observed and predicted changes in the extent and amount of snow and ice will have major impacts on climate, ecosystems and human populations both at a local and global scale. This course will introduce students to the science behind climate change as well as the physical and chemical processes that govern components of the cryosphere, including snow, permafrost, sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets. Particular emphasis will be placed on the important role that each component plays in the larger climate system and potential feedbacks. We will also examine some of the social, economic and political impacts that the melting cryosphere will have on countries around the Arctic and also worldwide, such as access to new petroleum reserves, infrastructure damage due to melting permafrost, sea level rise and decreases in freshwater availability. Recorded on February 19, 2014. Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. On Thin Ice 21 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/ess_21_on_thin_ice__climate_change_and_the_cryosphere.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. (creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).
Views: 1903 UCI Open
Arctic Sea-Ice on Life-Support
 
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I give detailed diagnostics on Arctic sea-ice extent, area, thickness, dynamics, status, and fragility. The miserable prognosis is near certainty as we head to complete end-of-summer melt-out over the Arctic Ocean Basin. As the ice goes, the global atmospheric circulation (jet streams, Hadley, Ferrel, Polar, Rossby) waves, and ocean circulation continues to reconfigure. Soon, Greenland will be the last Arctic bastion of ice and cold. Please donate to support my research and videos at http://paulbeckwith.net
Views: 6923 Paul Beckwith
The Arctic Is Close To Being Ice Free In The Summer. This Will Accelerate Climate Change
 
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The Arctic may be free of ice for the first time in 10,000 years. Wadhams shows how sea ice is the 'canary in the mine' of planetary climate change. He describes how it forms and the vital role it plays in reflecting solar heat back into space and providing an 'air conditioning' system for the planet. Prof. Peter Wadhams is the UK’s most experienced sea ice scientist, with 48 years of research on sea ice and ocean processes in the Arctic and the Antarctic. This has focused on expeditions and measurements in the field, which has involved more than 50 expeditions to both polar regions, working from ice camps, icebreakers, aircraft, and, uniquely, Royal Navy submarines (6 submerged voyages to the North Pole ). His research group in Cambridge has been the only UK group with the capacity to carry out fieldwork on sea ice. He is Emeritus Professor of Ocean Physics and is the author of numerous publications on dynamics and thermodynamics of sea ice, sea ice thickness, waves in ice, icebergs, ocean convection and kindred topics. The current main topics of research in the group are sea ice properties, dynamics, and distributions in thickness and concentration. He is also a pioneer in the use of AUVs (autonomous underwater vehicles) under sea ice, using multibeam sonar to map bottom features, work which he has also been done from UK nuclear submarines. He began his research career at the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge University, where he rose to become Director. He moved to DAMTP in 2001. He has also held visiting professorships in Tokyo (National Institute of Polar Research), Monterey (US Naval Postgraduate School), Seattle (University of Washington) and La Jolla (Green Scholar at Scripps Institution of Oceanography). He was the coordinator of several European Union Arctic flagship projects (ESOP, GreenICE, CONVECTION, and others) and is currently on the Steering Committee of the EU ICE-ARC project as well as a major US Office of Naval Research initiative in the Arctic. He served eight years on the Scientific Committee of the European Environment Agency and had served on panels of the National Academy of Sciences (USA). In 1990 he received the Italgas Prize for Environmental Sciences, and he has also been awarded the Polar Medal (UK) (1987) and the W.S. Bruce Prize of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. As well as being Professor at Cambridge he is an Associate Professor at the Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, run by Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, and is a Professor at the Università Politecnica Delle Marche, Ancona. He is a Member of the Finnish Academy and is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. His most recent book, “A Farewell to Ice”, documents the ways in which the retreat of sea ice in the Arctic generates feedbacks which impact the entire global climate system, accelerating the rate of warming, the rate of sea level rise, the emission of methane from the offshore, and the occurrence of weather extremes affecting food production. He contends that catastrophic consequences cannot be avoided without making an all-out effort to develop ways of directly capturing carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. Connect with The Real Truth About Health http://www.therealtruthabouthealth.com/ https://www.facebook.com/The-Real-Truth-About-Health-467500836655781/ https://www.instagram.com/therealtruthabouthealth/ https://twitter.com/RTAHealth Passionate believers in whole food plant based diets, no chemicals, minimal pharmaceutical drugs, no GMO's. Fighting to stop climate change and extinction.
Gulf of California Tectonic Setting—Earthquakes & the Spreading Ridge
 
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The Gulf of California is a classic place to study the early stages of the opening of an ocean basin. This animation depicts the evolution of the spreading ridge that marks the boundary between the Pacific and North American Tectonic Plates. The spreading ridge and transform faults are defined, then we go back 20 million years, borrowing an animation from Tanya Atwater (emvc.geol.ucsb.edu) to see changes in the Baja peninsula and the breakup of the continental shelf. The on-land part of this submarine spreading ridge extends into Baja California, Mexico and the Imperial Valley of California where it is transitioning from ridge-transform boundary to the continental boundary. Animation by Jenda Johnson, Earth Sciences Animated Reviewed by Luciana Astiz, U.C. San Diego (Scripps) visit www.iris.edu/educate to see other Earth-science animations.
SUNTANS Internal Waves on the Australian North West Shelf
 
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High-pass filtered sea surface elevation showing the surface expression of internal waves from a 3D unstructured grid ocean model, SUNTANS.
Views: 198 Matt Rayson
Response to Bill Whittle's "Is climate change real?"
 
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CORRECTIONS: I at around 8:00 I said that temperatures are now as high as they've been for the last 11,000 years, based on the Marcott paper I cite below. That's not accurate. Marcott concluded that current (transient) temperatures are now higher than 75% of the Holocene, and are set to exceed the highest Holocene temperatures over the next eight decades whatever the greenhouse gas emissions scenario. And at about 3:30 I said 400 million instead of 400 parts per million. The meaning should be clear from the context, but excuse the slip. SOURCES: 0:02 – “Is Climate Change Real?” YouTube video on Bill Whittle channel - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v_RuverrEZ4&t=80s 1:06 – Thermal expansion of oceans at https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/OceanCooling/page5.php 1:09 -- "Kinematic Constraints on Glacier Contributions to 21st-Century Sea-Level Rise" -- WT Pfeffer et al., Science 2008 1:24 -- "A Semi-Empirical Approach to Projecting Future Sea-Level Rise" -- Rahmstorf, Science 2007. 1:30 -- “Reconstructing sea level from paleo and projected temperatures 200 to 2100AD” -- Grinsted et al., Climate Dynamics 2009 1:38 -- “Global sea level rise scenarios for the United States National Climate Assessment” -- Parris et al. , NOAA 2012 See also "Global sea level linked to global temperature" -- Martin Vermeer and Stefan Rahmstorf, PNAS 2009 1:45 – “Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea level rise” DeConto and Pollard, Nature 2016 2:15 – Bill Nye climate video. 4:03 – “The Phanerozoic record of global sea level change” -- Miller et al., Science 2005 4:05 – “An atmospheric pCO2 reconstruction across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary from leaf megafossils” Beerling et al, PNAS 2002 4:36 – Whittle doesn’t give a source for this reconstruction, but it seems to be Mann, Bradley and Hughes 1998 04:47 – Whittle also doesn’t give a source for this graph, but I tracked down the author as Humlum at Oslo University. It hasn’t been published or peer-reviewed, it’s just being passed round the blogosphere. 5:04 – 5:18 – CORRECTION: The Arrhenius paper was 1896, not 1894. Other than that, the titles, authors and dates of these papers are ALL shown very clearly in the video. 6:45 -- 1950 as baseline: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/96JC03837/epdf ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/paleocean/by_contributor/brook2000/gisp2-8200-gas-iso.txt 6:52 – GISP2 raw data from: ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/paleo/icecore/greenland/summit/gisp2/isotopes/gisp2_temp_accum_alley2000.txt 7:23 – Ibid. 8:05 – “A Reconstruction of Regional and Global Temperature for the Past 11,300 years.” -- Markott at al. , Science 2013 10:30 -- "CO2 as a primary driver of Phanerozoic climate" -- D. Royer et al, GSA Today, March 2004. Based on Geocarb III data from: "Geocarb III: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time" -- R. Berner and Z. Kothavala, American Journal of Science, Feb 2001 10:39 – “Time-specific black mudstones and global hyperwarming on the Cambrian–Ordovician slope and shelf of the Laurentia palaeocontinent” E. Landing / Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 11:25 -- Solar output graph from James Imamura, University of Oregon Dept of physics http://jersey.uoregon.edu/~imamura/122/lecture-1/lecture-1.html 11:48 - “Climate Sensitivity during the Phanerozoic: Lessons for the Future” -- Dana L. Royer, oral presentation at AAPG Annual Convention, Denver, Colorado, June 2009. 12:01 -- "Geocarb III: A revised model of atmospheric CO2 over Phanerozoic time" -- R. Berner and Z. Kothavala, American Journal of Science, Feb 2001 12:06 -- "CO2 as a primary driver of Phanerozoic climate" -- D. Royer et al, GSA Today, March 2004. 14:06 -- “Large Perturbations of the Carbon Cycle During Recovery from the End-Permian Extinction” – Payne, Science 2004 14:11 – “δ13Corg chemostratigraphy of the Permian‐Triassic boundary in the Maitai Group, New Zealand: Evidence for high‐latitudinal methane release” -- Krull et al., New Zealand Journal of Geology and Geophysics, 1999 15:18 – “Volatile fluxes during flood basalt eruptions and potential effects on the global environment: A Deccan perspective” -- Self et al., 2006 CORRECTION: The Deccan traps happened around 66 million years ago. The flood basalt events that increased CO2 around 80 mya were the Caribbean plateau and the Madagascar traps according to "On the ages of flood basalt events" (Courtillot and Renne 2002). 15:48 -- "Timing of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic Temperature Changes Across Termination III" -- Caillon et al, Science 2003 16:35 – A list of the various myths and where I address them can be found in the video description of my video “The evidence for global warming without computer models or the IPCC.”
Views: 123470 potholer54
Melting Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves
 
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Why should we care about Antarctic ice shelves melting? It's simple: it will affect us all. Loss of ice from Antarctica will lead to increases in global sea level, and threaten coastal areas worldwide. My research tries to understand what is causing ice shelves to melt, and to predict what might happen in the future.
Views: 92 Dr Gilbz
More Antactic Sea Ice But Less Land Ice - Paul Beckwith - Sept 2014
 
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Why is Antarctica losing net ice mass despite sea ice increases? Paul Beckwith explains the dynamics of how and why the Arctic and Antarctic polar regions are losing NET ice while gaining shallow sea ice, and what it portends for the Southern hemisphere. Evidently, glacial ice is melting from below, Australia is experiencing warming and drought and the possibility that sea level rise will far surpass expectations. ~~~ Paul Beckwith is a professor of geography/meterology with a laboratory for paleoclimatology and climatology and is doctoral candidate of climatology at the University of Ottawa. He holds a science masters degree in laser physics and a BS in engineering physics. He is also a chess master. His dissertation is on abrupt climate change in the past and present. Due to the urgency of the current climate situation, Paul left up successful careers to devote himself to the study of the most pressing issue of our time - climate change. Paul's Youtube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/user/PaulHBeckwith/feed ~~~ Interviewer: Reese Jones http://climatechange12.com
Views: 787 ClimateChange12.com
Trestles Wave Mechanics, Learn about the Ocean Floor at San Onofre State Beach 2014
 
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Trestles Sea Floor Model and Explanation of Wave Quality 2014 - Trestles Wave Mechanics and tips on the features that tend to be present at the best places for surfing. There are a number of elements that contribute to the quality of waves that greet surfers at Trestles and the San Onofre State Park. Southern California has a variety of surfing locations that produce significantly different waves. The best contrast of wave types within the Southern California region would be Trestles compared to Huntington Beach (HB), California. HB is located in North Orange County with Long Beach and San Pedro to the north. HB has a sandy shoreline that meets a large fairly flat shelf that extends pretty far out until the bottom descends down to the next shelf depth. The sea floor in Huntington is so large that it extends to Long Beach/San Pedro to the north and to Newport to the south. In some ways this layout and the beaches positioning help HB to receive most swells. On the flip side this most likely contributes to the strong currents and rip-tides experienced in HB. HB waves are also sensitive to winds as the dry land that stretches form the shore inland is also flat (not many hills, cliffs, etc.). In addition there is not much kelp growth in HB. This is partially due to the flatness, lack of rock formations, and pollution. HB can experience significant wave quality degradation from average daily winds after 10:30am (unless off-shore wind or no-wind). As you head down the coast to Trestles the ocean floor that extends from the shore skinnies up and gives way to the next lower sea shelf much sooner. Trestles, south of HB, on the other hand has a different set of environmental factors that could explain the wave quality in that area. Trestles, like HB, has a fairly flat shelf that extends from the shoreline but it does not extend as far out before the next descent. Beach to the north and south of the San Onofre State Park actually make quicker descents once you leave the shore. This factor could limit the size and momentum of currents in the area along with the rocky shorelines in the overall region and the thriving kelp beds. Kelp also works with the local foothills and coastal bluffs that surround these beaches to minimize interference from wind. The icing on the cake would be the rock-reefs in the area that have formed from deteriorating bluffs and river flows. The rock reefs at Trestles create point breaks that can create fun A-frame shaped waves. This video includes a unique Topical Model and Satellite view of the ocean floor and shoreline that help to create some of the best waves in the world at Trestles and the San Onofre State park in California. Get a surfer's perspective on the mechanics of surfing at Trestles. Ocean Topical model: a three-dimensional representation of a thing or of a proposed structure/geographical feature, typically on a smaller scale than the original. 3D geographical model to help explain the mechanics of this surfing location. Assess surfing conditions. Sources: 1st Hand 2014 Birch Aquarium Model 2/1/2014 All kinds of other surf articles, surf movies, and surf trips to Trestles over the years. Music by Topher Mohr and Alex Elena Song Title Gypsy Dance Commentary by: Philip Dominguez Recorded by: Philip Dominguez Brought to you by Trade Federation www.ProSurfBlog.com copyright all rights reserved 2014
Views: 1787 EpicSurfNews
What Are The Consequences Of The Collapse Of The Arctics Summer Ice? by Peter Wadhams
 
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The Arctic may be free of ice for the first time in 10,000 years. Wadhams shows how sea ice is the 'canary in the mine' of planetary climate change. He describes how it forms and the vital role it plays in reflecting solar heat back into space and providing an 'air conditioning' system for the planet. Prof. Peter Wadhams is the UK’s most experienced sea ice scientist, with 48 years of research on sea ice and ocean processes in the Arctic and the Antarctic. This has focused on expeditions and measurements in the field, which has involved more than 50 expeditions to both polar regions, working from ice camps, icebreakers, aircraft, and, uniquely, Royal Navy submarines (6 submerged voyages to the North Pole ). His research group in Cambridge has been the only UK group with the capacity to carry out fieldwork on sea ice. He is Emeritus Professor of Ocean Physics and is the author of numerous publications on dynamics and thermodynamics of sea ice, sea ice thickness, waves in ice, icebergs, ocean convection and kindred topics. The current main topics of research in the group are sea ice properties, dynamics, and distributions in thickness and concentration. He is also a pioneer in the use of AUVs (autonomous underwater vehicles) under sea ice, using multibeam sonar to map bottom features, work which he has also been done from UK nuclear submarines. He began his research career at the Scott Polar Research Institute, Cambridge University, where he rose to become Director. He moved to DAMTP in 2001. He has also held visiting professorships in Tokyo (National Institute of Polar Research), Monterey (US Naval Postgraduate School), Seattle (University of Washington) and La Jolla (Green Scholar at Scripps Institution of Oceanography). He was the coordinator of several European Union Arctic flagship projects (ESOP, GreenICE, CONVECTION, and others) and is currently on the Steering Committee of the EU ICE-ARC project as well as a major US Office of Naval Research initiative in the Arctic. He served eight years on the Scientific Committee of the European Environment Agency and had served on panels of the National Academy of Sciences (USA). In 1990 he received the Italgas Prize for Environmental Sciences, and he has also been awarded the Polar Medal (UK) (1987) and the W.S. Bruce Prize of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. As well as being Professor at Cambridge he is an Associate Professor at the Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, run by Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, and is a Professor at the Università Politecnica Delle Marche, Ancona. He is a Member of the Finnish Academy and is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. His most recent book, “A Farewell to Ice”, documents the ways in which the retreat of sea ice in the Arctic generates feedbacks which impact the entire global climate system, accelerating the rate of warming, the rate of sea level rise, the emission of methane from the offshore, and the occurrence of weather extremes affecting food production. He contends that catastrophic consequences cannot be avoided without making an all-out effort to develop ways of directly capturing carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere. Connect with The Real Truth About Health http://www.therealtruthabouthealth.com/ https://www.facebook.com/The-Real-Truth-About-Health-467500836655781/ https://www.instagram.com/therealtruthabouthealth/ https://twitter.com/RTAHealth Passionate believers in whole food plant based diets, no chemicals, minimal pharmaceutical drugs, no GMO's. Fighting to stop climate change and extinction.
Scientists Bury GPS in Antarctic Ice to Measure Effects of Tides
 
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NASA scientists and ice sheet modelers, Ryan Walker and Christine Dow, traveled to a remote location on the coast of Antarctic to investigate how tides affect the movement and stability of the Nansen Ice Shelf, a 695-mile extension of ice protruding into Antarctica’s Ross Sea. Relatively understudied, Nansen’s manageable size lends itself to becoming a proxy for predicting how larger ice shelves will contribute to sea level rise in the decades and centuries to come. By studying the impact of tides, Walker and Dow are able to determine how the rise and fall of floating ice sheets may impact the likelihood of an eventual ice shelf collapse. [Note: After a successful post-doc at NASA Goddard in 2015, Dow is now at the University of Waterloo where she continues to study ice sheet dynamics.] This video is public domain and may be downloaded from the NASA Goddard Scientific Visualization Studio at: https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/12666 Credit: NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center/LK Ward If you liked this video, subscribe to the NASA Goddard YouTube channel: http://www.youtube.com/NASAExplorer Or subscribe to NASA’s Goddard Shorts HD Podcast: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/iTunes/f... Follow NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center · Facebook: http://www.facebook.com/NASA.GSFC · Twitter http://twitter.com/NASAGoddard · Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/gsfc/ · Instagram http://www.instagram.com/nasagoddard/ · Google+ https://plus.google.com/+NASAGoddard
Views: 2147 NASA Goddard
Houdini FLIP Ocean Shoreline v02
 
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I sculpted a shoreline in 3DCoat and exported it to Houdini 16. I created the ocean sim using Houdini's shelf tools. Rendered in Mantra and added some post-effects in Blackmagic Fusion Studio. This was an exercise in learning Houdini 16's new features. This is a second version with an additional camera angle and music.
Views: 4038 Todd Durant
Wine Falls Off Shelf at Liquor Store - 985159
 
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This guy was at the liquor store when the shelf in front of him suddenly shook and sent bottles of wine crashing to the floor. After staring at the mess in confusion, he set to work helping two employees remove the rest of the wine from the shelf.
Views: 543 RM Videos
Spur and Groove Dynamics
 
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Spur and groove reefs are a common feature of windward shores of islands, likely due to the continued effects of erosion caused by swell and trade wind waves (Roberts et al. 1992). The topography of these structures consists of parallel linear spur (ridges) of active coral growth separated by grooves (depressions) of accumulated sediment and coral debris. Spur and grooves are highly variable in size, ranging from 8 to 65 m in width and up to 10 m in height that can be found at depths between sea level and 45 m. The physical force of wave and current energy controls the morphology of these formations as erosive processes along the side of the spurs form the grooves. Spurs and grooves act as effective breakwaters and dissipate wave energy and current intensity (Roberts et al. 1992). The dissipative processes produce high surge and over-the-reef flows that force sediment from the reef surface. Reef degradation and subsequently structural losses in coral coverage have shown to be affected by a widening of the grooves and reduction of spurs (Lewis 2002). The following footage shows a spur and groove system with noticeable surge flow along the sedimentation in the grooves. Credits Cinematography: Dr. Stuart Sandin Edited by: Neilan Kuntz Written by: Neilan Kuntz Location: Palmyra Island, Line Islands, Central Pacific (2004) Lewis, J.B. (2002) Evidence from aerial photography of structural loss of coral reefs at Barbados, West Indies. Coral Reefs 21: 49-56 Roberts, H.H., P.A., Wilson, A., Lugo-Fernandez (1992) Biologic and geologic responses to physical processes: examples from modern reef systems of the Caribbean-Atlantic. Continental Shelf Research 12: 809-834
Views: 2282 MarinePhage
Houdini Dynamic Cloud Test1
 
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Test creating clouds and using them as a source for pyro.
Views: 374 Evan Robinson
Eddies and Jets in the Southern Ocean
 
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This animation shows the rich dynamics of eddies and jets in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean, which act to mix ocean waters. It shows a high resolution (1/20°) regional simulation of the Southern Ocean, including a peek at a submesoscale (1/80°) resolving nested simulation. By Isa Rosso, Stuart Ramsden, Andreas Klocker and Andy Hogg at the Australian National University.
Views: 7490 GFDANU
Reef Reservoir - Shelf-Margin Setting
 
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Reef Reservoir - Shelf-Margin Setting
FAQ #41 Do salt mixes expire and can mixed saltwater be stored long term? | 52 FAQ
 
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http://brs.li/FAQ41_Saltmix Today on BRStv, we have another episode of BRS 52 FAQ where we answer all of your frequently asked reefing questions from our popular 52 Weeks of Reefing series. Today we are answering drum4life’s question: "Do salt mixes have a shelf or expiration date? For example, buying salt and putting it in storage to mix it at a later date?” Let’s face it, when we as reefers come across a great deal on salt mixes, we want to buy as much as we can and store it for future use. However, has anyone ever wondered just how long you can keep a box of salt in the basement and will it still be good after weeks, months, or even years? The short answer, if kept in a well-sealed or air tight container or in its original sealed bag, then it can be stored indefinitely. But, what about storing mixed saltwater long term? Although it is possible to store mixed saltwater over a longer period of time, doing so comes with variables that may cause you to rethink the whole idea. The first issue that you may encounter is the precipitation of valuable elements of the salt mix. That most commonly being Calcium and Alkalinity. So, if you like your Red Sea Coral Pro salt mix because of its higher levels of Ca an Alk, you will quickly find that those levels deplete rather quickly after mixing. Another reason to be weary of storing mixed saltwater is because of the preservation of desirable organics. Some reefers choose their salt mixes because they contain probiotics as well as vitamins and amino acids. These organics can also deplete over long term storage. So follow along as Ryan discusses salt mix and saltwater storage, provides some other helpful insight, and helps make your reefing life a bit more fun and easy. *Legal Stuff* The purpose and content of this video is to provide general information regarding the products and their applications as presented in the video. Aquatic Sales Solutions, Inc. and its officers, directors, employees and agents disclaim all express or implied warranties, in any way, related to the products and their application as presented in this video, make no representation or warranty regarding the products and the application as presented in this video and shall not be liable for any direct or indirect losses or damages of any type, including but not limited to punitive damages, or from personal injury or death resulting from or in any manner related to the video, and the products in and contents of the video. The viewer expressly agrees that Aquatic Sales Solutions, Inc. and its officers, directors, employees and agents shall not be liable for any damages or losses related to the products in and content of the video and hereby agrees to hold the foregoing harmless from any such losses or damages.
Views: 42841 BulkReefSupplyCom
Massive Crack in Ice Shelf - Pine Island Glacier
 
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In October, 2011, NASA's Operation IceBridge discovered a major rift in the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica. This crack, which extends at least 18 miles and is 50 meters deep, could produce an iceberg more than 800 square kilometers in size. IceBridge scientists returned soon after to make the first-ever detailed airborne measurements of a major iceberg calving in progress. Music by Ishq - "bhakti"
Views: 52827 Bernd Riebe
Marine and Coastal Sciences Seminar -- Dr. Rob Sherrell 11/05/2018
 
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Seminar Title: Melting ice Shelves, Iron Dynamics, and Primary Productivity of the Amundsen Sea, West Antarctica
Views: 16 Rutgers EOAS
Kenneth Frank on cod stock dynamics
 
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During early november, scientists from around the world gathered in Lysekil for a workshop within the Demo programme. Their mission was to develop and synthesize more knowledge on cod stock dynamics in general. More specifically: how do food sources affect the cod development? Interview with Kenneth T Frank, a Canadian scientist who draw parallells between the Scotia shelf cod stocks and the stocks in the Baltic Sea. More info about DEMO in Swedish http://www.su.se/ostersjocentrum/baltic-eye/forskning/demo and in English http://www.su.se/ostersjocentrum/english/baltic-eye/research/demo
Views: 63 SUBalticSeaCentre
Houdini 16 Masterclass | Ocean Tools
 
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//NOTE: there have been several updates and bug fixes to the ocean tools since the Gold release of Houdini. Please use the latest daily build if possible to ensure you have the most recent version. Get Daily Build - sidefx.com/download/daily-builds/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Houdini's Ocean tools have been significantly redesigned for Houdini 16, offering more control over the look and timing of oceans, render-time evaluation of ocean spectra, and improved tools for integration with FLIP simulations. This masterclass starts by examining the meaning of an ocean "spectrum", then explores the new additions in Houdini 16 and how they can create "infinite" oceans with particle-based foam, as well as embedded FLIP simulations using an Extended Surface workflow. Download masterclass scene files here: sidefx.com/tutorials/houdini-16-ocean-tools/. - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - VIDEO CHAPTERS 00:00:00:00 // 00 - Welcome to Ocean Tools in H16 by John Lynch 00:01:39:18 // 01 - Intro 00:06:00:10 // 02 - New Layered Architecture in H16 00:08:07:25 // 03 - Spectrum Overview 00:14:20:27 // 04 - Spectrum Visualization 00:25:36:27 // 05 - Wave Instancing 00:27:33:25 // 06 - Wave Instancing Visualization 00:32:15:16 // 07 - Hero Waves Overview 00:34:29:13 // 08 - Hero Waves Setup (Ocean Waves) 00:43:36:05 // 09 - Ocean Layer Examples 00:49:20:04 // 10 - Rendering Oceans with Mantra in H16 00:53:01:17 // 11 - Rendering Workflow 01:05:57:17 // 12 - Particle-based Foam with OceanFoam SOP 01:09:24:19 // 13 - Foam (Large Ocean Shelf tool) 01:18:42:14 // 14 - Baking and Other Outputs 01:26:07:05 // 15 - FLIP/Ocean Overview 01:28:45:07 // 16 - Ocean Flat Tank Overview 01:31:35:12 // 17 - Ocean Flat Tank Tool 01:52:47:23 // 18 - Guided Ocean Layer Overview 01:54:45:17 // 19 - Guided Ocean Layer Setup
Views: 4687 Houdini
PolarConnect with Dominique Richardson with the Antarctic Ice Stream Dynamics team
 
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This one hour PolarConnect event (webinar) is with Dominique Richardson and the Antarctic Ice Stream Dynamics team aboard the R/V N.B. Palmer, in the Southern Ocean. This webinar was a special event celebrating Earth Day 2015.
Views: 120 PolarTREC
Coastal oceanographer Sarah Giddings in 99 Seconds
 
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Scripps Oceanography's Sarah N. Giddings talks about her research on the dynamics of estuaries. "I conduct research that focuses on the regions of the coastline where we have estuaries and bays, where rivers meet the ocean. I look at the physical transport mechanisms within estuaries and bays and also what comes out of them: river plumes that might have sediments or contaminants coming out of them." Read more about Sarah and her work at https://scripps.ucsd.edu/news/scientists-life-sarah-n-giddings
Views: 1198 Scripps Oceanography
Research finds: some of these cracks can contribute to thinning shelves and rising sea levels.
 
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Research finds: some of these cracks can contribute to thinning shelves and rising sea levels. Now the research finds that some of these cracks may contribute to the thinning of shelves and sea level rise. A single cannon on the Dotson ice shelf in West Antarctica is responsible for discharging 4.4 billion short tons 4 billion metric tons of freshwater into the Southern Ocean. Gourmelen and his colleagues have been using data from ESA's CryoSat and Copernicus Sentinel-1 satellites to observe the invisible underwater world of Antarctic guns. Both satellites use radar techniques to measure the thickness and dynamics of the ice shelf. The team used the data to investigate the flow of the Dotson Ice Shelf, an extension 30 miles wide 50 kilometers off the remote shore of the Earth to Marie Byrd. We have found subtle changes in the CryoSat surface elevation data and Sentinel-1 ice velocity, demonstrating that the melt is not uniform, but has focused on a 5 km wide 3 mile channel that runs 60 km miles along the bottom of the platform.
Views: 4 Science and more
London Lecture: Climate Change and Antarctica November 2016
 
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Antarctica: the enigmatic, romantic, remote white continent. Antarctica lies at the bottom of the world and all waters south of 60°S latitude are designated Antarctic, where no country owns the land and where only scientific and peaceful operations may take place. Unlike the Arctic, where floating sea ice annually melts and refreezes, Antarctica is a solid ice sheet lying on a solid continent. The Antarctic summer is during the northern Hemisphere winter. Antarctica may be remote and isolated, but the dynamics of the three great Antarctic Ice Sheets (East Antarctica, West Antarctica and the Antarctic Peninsula) affect us all. If all the land ice in Antarctica melted, the world’s sea levels would rise by 58 m. The West Antarctic and Antarctic Peninsula ice sheets are currently undergoing rapid change due to changing ocean currents, wind patterns and air temperatures. Dynamic effects in these smaller two ice sheets may result in rapid sea level rise of up to 3.5 m over the next few hundred years. Speaker: Bethan is a glacial geologist interested in the interaction between glaciers and climate over multiple timescales. She specialises in ice-sheet and glacier reconstruction in temperate and high latitudes, using a combination of field studies, chronostratigraphical methods (especially cosmogenic nuclide dating), remotely sensed data sets and numerical glacier modelling to quantify ice-sheet and ice-shelf history. She is particularly interested in glacial processes at the ice-bed interface, and uses detailed sedimentological analyses and micromorphology to analyse processes of entrainment, deposition and deformation. Bethan is a lecturer in Physical Geography at Royal Holloway University of London. Follow us: Twitter: https://twitter.com/geolsoc #gsllecture Website: http://www.geolsoc.org.uk/
Views: 1546 GeologicalSociety
Earth System Science 21. On Thin Ice. Lecture 16. Measuring Glacier Mass Balance and Ice Dynamics
 
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UCI ESS 21: On Thin Ice (Winter 2014) Lec 16. On Thin Ice -- Measuring Glacier Mass Balance and Ice Dynamics -- View the complete course: http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/ess_21_on_thin_ice__climate_change_and_the_cryosphere.html Instructor: Julie Ferguson, Ph.D. License: Creative Commons CC-BY-SA Terms of Use: http://ocw.uci.edu/info. More courses at http://ocw.uci.edu Description: In recent decades we have observed a significant reduction of the cryosphere due to anthropogenic climate change. The observed and predicted changes in the extent and amount of snow and ice will have major impacts on climate, ecosystems and human populations both at a local and global scale. This course will introduce students to the science behind climate change as well as the physical and chemical processes that govern components of the cryosphere, including snow, permafrost, sea ice, glaciers and ice sheets. Particular emphasis will be placed on the important role that each component plays in the larger climate system and potential feedbacks. We will also examine some of the social, economic and political impacts that the melting cryosphere will have on countries around the Arctic and also worldwide, such as access to new petroleum reserves, infrastructure damage due to melting permafrost, sea level rise and decreases in freshwater availability. Recorded on February 14, 2014. Required attribution: Ferguson, Julie. On Thin Ice 21 (UCI OpenCourseWare: University of California, Irvine), http://ocw.uci.edu/courses/ess_21_on_thin_ice__climate_change_and_the_cryosphere.html. [Access date]. License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. (creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en_US).
Views: 1258 UCI Open
Ocean eddies are the coolest!
 
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Click here to subscribe ► http://bit.ly/2dPZNN2 Ocean eddies are circular flowing currents that can retain and transport things like salt, baby fish, heat, and nutrients all around the planet! You can make your own eddy with a dinner plate and some food coloring and see first hand how fluid vorticity makes this crazy phenomenon possible! Learn more about eddies at the Coastal & Shelf Modeling Lab at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science http://coastalmodeling.rsmas.miami.edu/ Special thanks to Dr. Peter Gaube for contributing beautiful visualizations of global eddies. Learn more about his work at: https://gaubelab.org/ Global flow visualization from NASA's Perpetual Ocean Project: http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/details.cgi?aid=3827 Learn more at Waterlust.com
Views: 11568 Waterlust
Permafrost thaw might be even more potent than we thought
 
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The trend from frozen tundra soils shifting to thermokarst erosion and thaw ponds, may in the future be exacerbated by increased rainfall and weather events. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/lol2.10063/epdf and http://www.inrs.ca/english/actualites/thawing-permafrost-causing-browning-northern-lakes Correction: at ca. 9:36, it should read, the dark water surfaces of thaw ponds, rich in organic matter, absorb much more sunlight -hence decreases the landscape albedo. NASA map of soil degradation https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=89434 Photo, Tundra Fire, Kaminak Lake Area http://www.prairie.illinois.edu/shilts/gallery/shilts-0053.shtml Horn Lake thermokarst https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CVKsZhrsAec Icicle melting by Jeffrey Beach (Beachfront Productions) https://archive.org/details/IcicleMelting Permafrost warming Svalbard graphic https://twitter.com/Ketil_Isaksen/status/823788018213552128 Further reading ============ As the climate warms, the carbon balance of arctic ecosystems will respond in two opposing ways: Plants will grow faster, leading to a carbon sink, while thawing permafrost will lead to decomposition and loss of soil carbon. https://www.amap.no/documents/doc/snow-water-ice-and-permafrost-in-the-arctic-swipa-2017/1610 The results presented here—that large C losses are possible from the permafrost region, whose magnitude is strongly governed by the dynamics of deeper decomposition, and that large losses are unlikely to be compensated by N fertilization accompanying decomposition—underscore the importance of considering permafrost carbon dynamics in ESMs. Permafrost soils may produce a strong, albeit delayed, C response to global change, and must therefore be included in assessments of long-term C cycle feedbacks to climate change. http://www.pnas.org/content/112/12/3752 Methanotroph https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methanotroph Heterotroph https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heterotroph Alaska Permafrost https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/08/23/climate/alaska-permafrost-thawing.html
Views: 45355 Climate State

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