HomeОбразованиеRelated VideosMore From: Guy Stieglitz

Paraphrasing: The Basic Steps

3230 ratings | 446348 views
It is a necessary academic skill to paraphrase ideas when writing and reading. This video gives two examples of how to paraphrase.
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Text Comments (255)
Mandy O'Callaghan (2 days ago)
That helped alot, thank you
Guy Stieglitz (2 days ago)
Glad to hear it.
Katy Pretty (5 days ago)
The professor should be like ya .
Katy Pretty (2 days ago)
+Guy Stieglitz wlcm
Guy Stieglitz (2 days ago)
Joy Smith (11 days ago)
Enjoyed your explanation. Great!
gautam gupta (12 days ago)
Good teaching and nice speaking
Guy Stieglitz (12 days ago)
Masroor Khalil (20 days ago)
pls upload videos on synonms in research papers of scientific languages
Guy Stieglitz (18 days ago)
This is a skill that takes time to develop through rigorous academic study. My advice is to read lots of research papers similar to the kind you want to produce. This will help you develop the kind of academic writing style you need.
Masroor Khalil (19 days ago)
Guy Stieglitz how can.we write sciencetific english in research paper
Guy Stieglitz (20 days ago)
Not sure what you mean. Can you specify a bit?
oumaima waterson (1 month ago)
plzz teavher i paraphrased a tezt n i want u to correct it for me "given that content available through the internet is often not verified by an independent source,it is important that youg ppl learn to read with a critical eye and not take everything that is said at face value " the paraphrasing is: young ppl,learnt study from independent sources without paying attention at how it could be dangerouse.otherwise ,eventhough it warned them to take it at face value. how to
oumaima waterson (1 month ago)
ah yeah i understand ur right i mistaken when i put the pronoun "it" i wil try to paraphraze it again thank u for ur answer :))
Guy Stieglitz (1 month ago)
eventhough it warned them to take it at face value. how to This is the really difficult part. The use of 'it' is confusing and the 'it' takes the action and tells them to actually take it at face value. Confusing.
Guy Stieglitz (1 month ago)
The first part seems OK. The second part is a little confusing. You have the right idea though.
Tri Rohmat (1 month ago)
you explain it very well. thank you
Guy Stieglitz (1 month ago)
Thank you!
Mart Conception (1 month ago)
Our health may be in great danger due to BPA, a chemical substance found in synthetic naterials like plastics. is this correct?
Guy Stieglitz (1 month ago)
It’s more like a very short summary than a paraphrase, but you have the spirit of changing grammar and vocabulary...
j jenko (2 months ago)
good stuff but you didn't show how to cite a paraphrased item.
Guy Stieglitz (2 months ago)
It’s true. My focus was the paraphrase. At the time, my students knew how to cite.
SINIT TEKESTE (2 months ago)
it helps me a lot. Tank you so much!
Guy Stieglitz (2 months ago)
Glad to hear this:)
Rahmetullah Sabanci (2 months ago)
Go away and take a break, U must be genius if you discovered this. All items are nice but this is excellent. 👏👏👏
Guy Stieglitz (2 months ago)
Marvel Onwumere (2 months ago)
Wonderful video!
Guy Stieglitz (2 months ago)
Thank you :)
Stephen Muir (2 months ago)
This is a very helpful video, and I'll direct my students to it for sure. Just one comment, however. I think it would be preferable for your final example, the paragraph-level paraphrase, to condense the original as well as changing grammar and vocabulary. That is, ideally your (or a student's) version would be shorter whilst still maintaining the essence of the original. Perhaps the three sentences in this paragraph could be condensed to two, or maybe even one? Something like: "Supported by substantial scientific evidence, The International Health Authority maintains that the long-term ingestion of the dangerous chemical BPA, via plastic molecules originating in food wrappings, has a cumulative and increasingly negative impact upon the body." What do you think? My intention here is not to outdo your very excellent paraphrase (though I AM rather pleased with my version!), but to propose that one possible goal of paraphrase is to abbreviate and distill, as well as to recast. I'd be very interested to know your views! Thank you again for an excellent pedagogical tool :-)
Guy Stieglitz (2 months ago)
You are welcome.
Stephen Muir (2 months ago)
Ah, yes—the difference between summary and paraphrase. That’s a very helpful point indeed. And yes, upon reflection I am drawing on 20 years’ academic writing experience. It’s a timely reminder of the importance of meeting students where they are currently and helping them to move forward (though they never cease to amaze me from time to time!). Many thanks indeed for a very interesting and fruitful exchange!
Guy Stieglitz (2 months ago)
Hello, Stephen Thanks for your comments. I do like your paraphrase as it is quite sophisticated and succinct. However, my students at the time would never be able to produce that type of language. The video was done as a survival guide for my students, a step-by-step. So I would agree that a student with more linguistic skills would be able to take the spirit of the video and run with it. With this said, I have read several resources that state the paraphrase should be more or less the same length as the original whereas summaries are meant to be shorter versions. Thanks again for your comments and let me know what you think.
Katarina Elin (2 months ago)
Thank you very much
ciara smith (3 months ago)
hey cece
KenThaGamer 1212 (4 months ago)
Finnaly i understand it
Carvel Bell (5 months ago)
Honestly, this is the kind of teaching techniques that students from various learning institutions need, it is very creative, educational, informative, interesting and entertaining as well. Guy Stieglitz, you have done an excellent job for making this wonderful instructional video and I give you 100% respect for that. I think you should also do another video that will teach students the differences between  paraphrasing and plagiarism and give many examples that will explained clearly theirs differences. Thanks and keep up the good work.
Noor shaik (13 days ago)
fuck off
Guy Stieglitz (5 months ago)
I really thank you for your kind feedback. I am going to make that video real soon because the difference between paraphrasing and citing is important and I think some younger students don't really see the difference.
Pakistan Zindabad (5 months ago)
It is good video. It would definitely increase my learning about paraphrasing. Thanks respected sir. God bless you!
samantha Torres (5 months ago)
Thank you! ☺
Lori (5 months ago)
Guy Stieglitz (5 months ago)
Ichrak Mbarki (5 months ago)
What is your accent please.i liked it
Guy Stieglitz (5 months ago)
maemi michyo (5 months ago)
I'm not sure I could take a break in my test tbh😂
Guy Stieglitz (5 months ago)
Yes, I agree. Paraphrasing is a skill, so in the very beginning taking a break may help, but once you internalize the skill through practice, you can manage on the test easily.
Larcy Onias (6 months ago)
Nice video bruh 😊😊😊😊
Guy Stieglitz (5 months ago)
gsurgeon2b (6 months ago)
you the SHIT!
Guy Stieglitz (6 months ago)
Is that a good thing? :)
LilA8706 x (7 months ago)
Thanks I had my reading staar and this helped
Guy Stieglitz (7 months ago)
Great news
Lachon Almodovar (7 months ago)
Omg1 I am happy to run across this video. i had two anxiety attacks for writing papers. You explain so clearly. Thank you so much!
Guy Stieglitz (7 months ago)
you're welcome...enjoy your studies
saba Alisa (7 months ago)
Sir can intermidiat english level student make a peraphrse.?
Guy Stieglitz (7 months ago)
If you understand the text, you should be able to paraphrase. So it depends on the difficulty of the text in relation to the reader.
have a nice day
Mir Mengal (8 months ago)
Thank you sir..!
Guy Stieglitz (7 months ago)
you are welcome
GANN ER SHUR (8 months ago)
Nice video
Guy Stieglitz (7 months ago)
thanks 🙏
Seyyed Morteza Sarvari (8 months ago)
Thank you for your helpful video but people from non-English backgrounds like me who are struggling to learn new language and have to do assessment for University need more helps or at least easier steps to learn "How to paraphrase".
Guy Stieglitz (8 months ago)
i understand. Paraphrasing, actually, is such a big deal because our ability to do it well is representative of our overall language abilities because it requires good grammar and vocabulary skills. Also, the deeper we understand a text, the easier it is to paraphrase. So keep developing the overall language skills.
M Jasu (9 months ago)
Super poem
Guy Stieglitz (9 months ago)
panneer selvam (9 months ago)
Thank you soo muchhhhhh very helpful
Guy Stieglitz (9 months ago)
Lorraine Mamb (9 months ago)
Guy Stieglitz (9 months ago)
Great to hear.
yinthang min (9 months ago)
Thank you. Please upload more videos.
Dina Rampersaud (9 months ago)
I needed this👍👍
A.Demetriou (9 months ago)
Gotta be careful with the cinnamon
Samkelisiwe Mvubu (9 months ago)
It is helpful, much appreicated
belay asefa (9 months ago)
Guy Stieglitz (9 months ago)
thanks 👍
Ujjwal Chetan (9 months ago)
thanks for your lessons....great work...
Guy Stieglitz (9 months ago)
much appreciated
RS THE ASIF (9 months ago)
so good
Guy Stieglitz (9 months ago)
Cihat Ünsal (9 months ago)
thanks a lot
Guy Stieglitz (9 months ago)
you are welcome
aW TanKa (10 months ago)
Only reason some of us watch this is because of school.
Guy Stieglitz (9 months ago)
i hope it helps you though
KEYRU SERBARA (10 months ago)
I paraphrase it, then when i check his reference I just reversed to original writers form?how can minimize such problems?
KEYRU SERBARA (10 months ago)
when I read one literature, i go authors reference for more information but the referred paper also refer to another older report.as an example..autour A studied about use of proteins and writes like"proteins are important for healthy" author B study about types of protein , in his literature wrote like"protein containing foods has a significant advantage for human wellbeing.if i want to write same idea on my literature, which one i need to cite?...
Guy Stieglitz (10 months ago)
Actually, I am not sure what you mean by 'reversed to the original writers form'.
Patrick Cabrido (10 months ago)
I slowly understand this. Please make more video of this. I am studying at the university and most of my assignments are paraphrasing
Alex Raibley (10 months ago)
Thanks! this video really helped me 🙂
Guy Stieglitz (9 months ago)
you are welcome
Àm Èl (10 months ago)
Thank you
F Z (11 months ago)
You’re fucking good Thanks 🙏🏻.
Guy Stieglitz (11 months ago)
Faisal Mehmood (11 months ago)
interesting sir but sir my problems ,How to remove or reduces the gramatical miss take
Guy Stieglitz (11 months ago)
This will take time. Through continued work with the language and attention to grammatical concepts, you will improve. Keep reviewing your grammar and reading. Reading can help you pick up the grammar overtime.
Oho Da Mint (1 year ago)
You teach it very clear and easy to understand sir! Give a big like to you sir!😀
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
Thanks I am glad it helped 😎
Jas (1 year ago)
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
Glad you enjoyed it.
Manita Dongol (1 year ago)
thank you so much, this is really helpful
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
You are welcome.
faruk aliyu (1 year ago)
very helpful piece. thanks
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
mvnicsoul (1 year ago)
This is very helpful! Thanks.
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
+mvnicsoul Glad it helped.
Iman mimi (1 year ago)
but the problem is if you don't have much vocabulary since I am Arabian we have some difficulties, we don't have much words what should i do , please can you give me advice regarding this matter
Iman mimi (1 year ago)
I really appreciate your help, I will go through these websites, and I hope I can make a progress :)
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
To be honest, developing your vocabulary is the best option. However, for now, you will need to use a good dictionary for a person who speaks English as a second language. Remember, though, that paraphrasing means to put in your own words, and if the vocabulary is limited, then the paraphrase might be very basic . The key is to assure you are not plagiarizing. There are lots of good websites to develop the academic vocabulary. Spell city is a good one. Vocabulary exercises for the academic wordlist is also good.
Solomon Eshete (1 year ago)
Thank you, interesting
Kelly Rowland (1 year ago)
Can you please explain in details how to use the paraphrasing tool pls
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
+Kelly Rowland I'll do my best to make one today...do you still need it?
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
+Kelly Rowland https://youtu.be/2AfDWEtSQqM
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
+Kelly Rowland https://youtu.be/2AfDWEtSQqM I think this may help. Let me know...
sany acosta (1 year ago)
Amazing teacher!!! Thanks
Bryn Putnam (1 year ago)
Thank you Mr. Guy, this was so very helpful.
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
+Bryn Putnam You are welcome for sure Thanks
Inoda Santana (1 year ago)
great info! Thanks
Norzanita Othman (1 year ago)
Thank you Mr Guy Stieglitz. This really helped me.
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
+Norzanita Othman Glad to hear it! Good luck
carla goncalves (1 year ago)
Sophie At. (1 year ago)
Mr.Guy Stieglitz i am going to give a ecpe test and i have a problem on paraphrasing .This video helped me a lot but isn't it very difficult to paraphrase in 2 minutes . What can i do should i read each point and paraphrase it ?
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
Sophie At. I see. On the Internet it says the test is non academic which is good news. The paraphrasing skill is a general type of skill that will test your general language skills. To be good at paraphrasing you need to have good vocabulary skills and grammatical skills. So if you are paraphrasing on the exam seek to change the grammar and vocabulary of the target statements. Here is an example, They heard the speaker's argument , but felt he was wrong. Although they heard the points made by the speaker, they did not think he was correct. In short grammar and vocabulary practice could help. I recommend reading and keeping a vocabulary journal. Paraphrasing is a skill that takes time.
Sophie At. (1 year ago)
Of course . So in my test we have to do paraphrasing at the speaking .Now i will describe you the process of speaking. I am going to give the michigan profficiency .In this speaking they talk two students (we are supposed to be colleagues for example ). A teacher give us a paper which explain us what issue we have to discuss. This paper also includes some bullet points which help us to present our two options.Each option has a negative bullet point.The main problem is that we have a restricted time to do do paraphrasing .We should present our options to our colleague but we haven't to read the points as they are.Sometimes i can't change the words because it's the time which limits you.So what can i do?
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
Sophie At. Paraphrasing is a skill and for some it can be done quickly. So lots of practice can help. And, when a text is fully understood, yes, the paraphrasing can be done quickly. However, I am not really familiar with the specific task you have to do on the test. Can you tell me more?
sana javed (1 year ago)
Thanks you alot for posting this type of videos . It's very helpful for me .thanks again
Umur Çelikyay (1 year ago)
Thanks Guy. Nice to run into you here!
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
Hey, Umur, I hope all is well.
Omar Ahmed (1 year ago)
Thank you so much about this clarity
Ana New Jersy (1 year ago)
Thank you!!!!👍🏼😄
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
+Ana New Jersy You are welcome
Anonymous Society (1 year ago)
mohamed Ehab (1 year ago)
this was very good video and much useful, but the tool link isn't working ???
Jessica O'Brien (1 year ago)
Thank you for sharing this! I will be able to use your video with my students because you are so thorough and well-paced while explaining. I am a middle school English teacher and never heard of the online paraphrasing tool. Very helpful for my young learners to have a way to check their paraphrasing work.
Guy Stieglitz (1 year ago)
Jessica O'Brien Thanks Glad it helps!
Russell Isabel (1 year ago)
I use one Paraphrasing Software. https://plus.google.com/+WangMilanda/posts/7Mj6tWBqrJN
Nikki Joseph (2 years ago)
Why did you not cite your sources after each paraphrase? This will lead to plagarism still in an essay paper...
Chano Mars (15 days ago)
Nikki Joseph how would you cite if there is no author in the article probably from a web page???
kelyoph (11 months ago)
Nikki Joseph--Thanks
Pepson Daniel osei (1 year ago)
Nikki Joseph Lol. This helped. Thanks a lot
Nikki Joseph (1 year ago)
+Pepson Daniel osei At the beginning of the paraphrase I cited as well as in between the paraphrase. For example let's say the already paraphrased paragraph is ( It is Friday and it is cloudy and cold but no signs of thunderstorms. Hopefully Saturday will be sunny). I would have done something like this: Joseph(2017) explained that it is Friday and it is cloudy and cold but no signs of thunderstorms. She also went on to state that hopefully Saturday will be sunny. Hope this creates some sparks so you can proceed.
Pepson Daniel osei (1 year ago)
Nikki Joseph how did you do it? I'm stuck on how to cite a paraphrased paragraph and I have no idea how to go about it.
Edge (2 years ago)
That's gonna take a lot of time if you have 5k words of assignments to do in a day... I looking some quick tools for my blog site. So that I can have maximum content with quality.
Morgan (2 years ago)
Great video. Handy knowing that synonymous option on Word. I will use that to rephrase my wording if I get stuck. Thanks again🤔
Morgan (2 years ago)
I am studying the Social work pathway
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
Thanks, I am glad you found the video helpful.
yaser7779 ba sadeq (2 years ago)
i was going to fail on my test with out ur leason :D
Mr Noodle (2 years ago)
yes this will really help me!!...I do have a question though. I am writing a science essay soon. If say a fundamental part of the essay would be something like "garlic contains allin which gets metabolized into allicin via [add a long scientific explanation]" The thing is if I do have that long explanation, chances are if i paraphrase the works of 10 people I would pretty much be copying the works of another 10, but because it is such a fundamental explanation I am not so sure how to go about this...the school i go to uses turnmein to detect plagiarism and I am not sure of how to work around it here thank you for your help!!!
Mr Noodle (2 years ago)
+Guy Stieglitz yes thanks!!
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
remember, if you think the information can't or should not be paraphrased, simply cite it according the the method you institution uses. For example, I use APA. So the ideas is to quote and cite. Often we paraphrase and cite, but sometimes we quote and cite. Does this help?
Mutrik ALkhtani (2 years ago)
I appreciate it. It is too usful
ngan huynh (2 years ago)
so clear, so useful...many thanks!
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
You are welcome:)
rekha yanamadala (2 years ago)
it's very helpful...thanks alot
Steph Spalding (2 years ago)
You said changing words and what structure ?? How you spell it please I need help
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
I am referring to the grammar.  It is important to change up the grammar in the sentence.
Charles Smith (2 years ago)
Here is my paraphrase regarding New York City (sentence level changes): Nestled very close to the Atlantic Ocean, the city that never sleeps, New York, has a very wide variety of spectacular sights and attractions that allures not only those who live in the state, but also those from other states and also international visitors.
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
Nice effort!
thank u really it is a helpful video
Kenali Mali (2 years ago)
Dear sir. First. Thank you so much. Second. You can replace studies with works, I am an English teacher at a scientific college. I look at tens of theses and papers and I love your way of lecturing
Guy Stieglitz (2 months ago)
Suganthi R  Sorry, I didn't see this message. I hope all went well in your writing...
Suganthi R (6 months ago)
Hi,can you edit my journal that is rephrasing and without plagiarism for cost
Kenali Mali (2 years ago)
it will Sir, thank you.
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
yes, of course feel free and I hope it helps.
Kenali Mali (2 years ago)
Anytime sir. I need your permission to use this material as a presentation that I will give to my students in Iraq at university please.
Bebo 32 (2 years ago)
Your video is very helpful..Thank you so much Sir :)
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
You are welcome.   Glad it helped.
Katherine Meyrick (2 years ago)
Hi! This was a wonderful tutorial. However, I would add that paraphrasing also includes changing sentence order and paragraph format. This is critical to avoid accusations of plagiarism.
Daniel Oliver (1 month ago)
That depends on why you are paraphrasing. If you are paraphrasing to simplify a complex paragraph to get clarity and your audience is yourself and friends, why would you worry about accusations of plagiarism.
Sheryn Tan (2 years ago)
My foundation studies program wants us to learn this but I don't understand what the teacher is saying after watching this video I get the idea of on how to paraphrase thx so much Mr Guy
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
Thanks. I hope all is going well in your program.
Sbabalo Dzanibe (2 years ago)
You guys. My assignments have improved so much after watching this video, no more excessive qouting and plagiarism. Many thanks Mr Guy, God bless u!
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
+sbabalo dzanibe I am glad to hear it. Our ability to put a text into our own words is really what reading and learning is all about.
First Source House (2 years ago)
thats a great knowledge.
Adolf Brew (2 years ago)
i need help on how to para phrase this consequently most of the early information we receive about others people racial,religiously,or socioeconomically different from oursleves does not come as the result of firsthand experience
Adolf Brew (2 years ago)
Than you hunter. I already failed it but it was helpful lol
Hunter Mannertitten (2 years ago)
+Adolf Brew Our initial impressions about other people who are not like us often do not come from interacting with them, but rather from media and other sources.
sameen sharma (2 years ago)
handymandan is not working link
khlood saud (2 years ago)
can you ***
khlood saud (2 years ago)
can send to me the link plaese
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
+khlood saud I just tried it and it works. However, if you watch the video and practice a bit, you do not need the site.
khlood saud (2 years ago)
I know i  said the link dos not work with me how can i use it  plaese .
sameen sharma (2 years ago)
Hey it very very important thing if u want to crack exam
Dan Tollan (3 years ago)
Does this co-inside with how the british would paraphrase? Theres so many types of harvard referencing!! haha
Guy Stieglitz (3 years ago)
+Dan Tollan Paraphrasing is just a way of putting ideas in your own words. There are many ways to go about it as long as the final product is good - than that's fine. However, citing your paraphrase and the style you use depends on where you study. Does this help? You mentioned Harvard. This is not a way to paraphrase; this is a way to give credit to the author for his or her ideas. Cheers
Muhammad Saddique (3 years ago)
Could you tell me where can i found the steps for summary writing? Thanks
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
+Muhammad Saddique Summary writing is simply capturing the main points of a text. The focus here is the MAIN points. The summary is usually shorter than the text that is being summarized because not all details make the summary. The summary should be in your own words. Here is something from OWL Perdue at https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/ Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material.
MNY ruhan (3 years ago)
thank you bro...thanks a lot...
Moses Htoo (3 years ago)
very helpful for my assignment..Thanks Mr. Guy!!... :)
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
+Guy Stieglitz Yes, you are welcome.
Guy Stieglitz (3 years ago)
+Moses Htoo You are welcome
keshᅳ스ᅳ (3 years ago)
Thank you!! :)
gsurgeon2b (3 years ago)
thank you!
Poodie&Roo (3 years ago)
Please post more videos. You teach so beautifully D:
subhi younes (8 months ago)
PerfectlyImperfect Zoo
Guy Stieglitz (2 years ago)
+JanetIsNumberOne Thank you so much. I hope to but time for me is a real issue. I'll do my best.
Poodie&Roo (3 years ago)
+Guy Stieglitz If I think of anything, I will DEFINITELY let you know!
Guy Stieglitz (3 years ago)
+JanetIsNumberOne Thanks I will as soon as I have some time. If you have ideas for good content. let me know.
Poodie&Roo (3 years ago)
Yay! Thankyou! and thank you for your response :)
Jenny Du (3 years ago)
Hi the website doesn't work do you have another one I could use?
Jenny Du (3 years ago)
Guy Stieglitz (3 years ago)
+Jenny Du  I don't have one off the top of my head, but I recommend that you really focus on paraphrasing using the steps. Your mind is the most powerful paraphrasing tool I know. It is a skill that is developed over time. The on-line tool, for me, is just a way to help a person see what needs to be done with paraphrasing. We need a new grammar and new vocabulary when possible. As you know, sometimes, there are words that can not be changed without changing the meaning of the sentence. I wish you great paraphrasing.
sam anderson (3 years ago)
it was a great job and a very clear, but one more thing, after you are  changing and paraphrase in another shape but keep same  meaning. the final step in research, for example, should we end any sentence of paraphrasing with footnote. If we supposed to use APA style. It was really helpful, but do you have more videos about how to reference it at the end of your research.
Guy Stieglitz (3 years ago)
Hello, Sam I am glad that you found the video helpful.  The key to your questions is what format you will be using, which is usually decided by the instructor or institution.  APA and MLA are common.    This resource, in my view. is one of the best.   I hope it helps.  https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/
CarletonU (3 years ago)
Mr.Guy for president
Guy Stieglitz (3 years ago)
+NasLafta Merdas  Glad it helped.

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